Residues and Contaminants in Fresh Vegetables from Conventional Culture, 2018

Report from a day in the lab

Ellen Scherbaum, Kathi Hacker

 

Summary

Pesticide contamination of conventionally grown fresh vegetables in 2018 remained unchanged. The German-grown vegetables showed the best results. Every 20th sample was in violation for at least one exceedance of the maximum residue level (MRL); when official objections to the substance chlorate are included in the calculation, almost every 5th sample was affected. Except for three samples (2 x kale and eggplant), the detected pesticide amounts posed no health risk. There was just one exception: a sample of coriander of unknown origin, presumably from Asia, contained 27 different pesticides, seven of which were above the maximum limit.

 

Schmuckelement.

Overview

In 2018 a total of 1,076 samples of fresh vegetables from conventional cultivation were analyzed by CVUA Stuttgart for residues of over 750 different pesticides, pesticide metabolites, and contaminants. In all, 965 of these samples (90 %) contained residues from a total of 219 different pesticide substances (compared to 227 substances in 2017; 202 in 2016; 210 in 2015; 208 in 2014; and 199 in 2013). A total of 4,953 residues were found (according to the legal definition; see also Annex 4). There were exceedances of the MRL in 231 (21 %) vegetable samples - see Table 1. As in the four previous years, the rate of violations remained fairly high (16 % in 2017, 2016, 2015 and 2014; 4.4 % in 2013; 6.4 % in 2012; and 7 % in 2011). This is attributable to the expansion in 2014 of the investigative spectrum to include polar pesticides, as well as the high number of MRL exceedances for the substance chlorate, with a total of 191 (18 %) vegetable samples. When chlorate violations are not included in the calculation, the exceedance of MRLs lies at 55 samples (5.1 %). Of all the samples, the German vegetables had the best record.

 

Detailed Results

All of the samples were routinely analyzed for about 750 substances using the QuEChER multi-method and the QuPPe method (for very polar substances; see also CVUA Stuttgart | QuPPe Method). Table 1 gives an overview of the analyzed fresh vegetable samples, itemized by country of origin.

 

Table 1: Residues of pesticides in vegetable samples from conventional production, by country of origin (CVUAS, 2018)
Fresh Vegetables
Domestic Samples
Samples from other countries
Samples from 3rd countries
Samples of unknown origin
Total Samples
Number of Sampes

472

381

381

63

1076

Samples w/ residues

389 (82 %)

358 (94 %)

358 (94 %)

59 (94 %)

965 (90 %)

Samples > MRL

66 (14 %)

96 (25 %)

96 (25 %)

19 (30 %)

231 (21 %)

Average pesticide amount (mg/kg)

1.9

2.2

2.2

1.1

2.1

Ave. pesticide content

excluding bromide & fosetyl (sum) (mg/kg)*

0.44

0.59

0.59

0.32

0.46

Ave. no. substances per sample

3.8

5.1

5.1

5.1

4.6

*The comparatively high levels of fosetyl (sum) and bromide residues strongly affect the average quantity of pesticides per sample. The average amount per sample is therefore also provided without fosetyl (sum) and bromide.

 

The samples came from 31 different countries, with most originating in Germany (472), Spain (163), Italy (111), the Netherlands (51), and Turkey (36). There were 63 samples without information regarding the country of origin.

 

When comparing the number of pesticide substances used, one must consider that the individual cultures are grown in different climate zones, and are thus burdened by pests to different degrees. It is therefore necessary to take individual, often different, measures of plant protection. An average of 4.6 different substances was detected per sample, although the local samples scored better, at 3.8 substances. Excluding fosetyl (sum) and bromide, the average amount of pesticide residues overall was 0.46 mg/kg and, for the German-grown samples, 0.44 mg/kg. The rate of German samples with pesticide amounts above the limit values was much lower than those from other countries, however. A close observation of Table 2 shows that the countries with the highest rate of exceedances (> 30 %) were the third countries.

 

Table 2: Exceedances of MRLs in Vegetables from Conventional Cultivation; Countries with Exceedance Rates > 30 %; No. of Samples per Country > 5 (CVUAS, 2018)
Country Country Categorie
No. of Samplesl
Samples > Maximum Level (%)
Samples > Maximum Level w/o Chlorate (%)
Peru Third Country
7
6 (86 %)
4 (57 %)
Thailand Third Country
7
6 (86 %)
1 (14 %)
Turkey Third Country
36
18 (50 %)
13 (36 %)
France EU Country
15
6 (40 %)
1 (7 %)
Mexiko Third Country
8
3 (38 %)
2 (25 %)
China Third Country
6
2 (33 %)
2 (33 %)
Belgium EU Country
19
6 (32 %)
0 (0 %)

 

Info Box

Maximum Residue Levels

Maximum residue levels (MRLs) are not toxicological endpoints or limit values. They are derived from residue investigations carried out under realistic conditions. The expected residues are then compared with toxicological limit values, in order to ensure that lifelong or a one-time intake of the substance does not pose a health risk.

Maximum residue levels regulate trade, and are not permitted to be exceeded. Food containing residues above the MRL are not marketable; they may not be sold. Not every exceedance of an MRL poses a health risk, however. It is therefore important to make differentiated observations.

 

Federal Office of Consumer Protection and Food Safety (BVL) brochure: “Pflanzenschutzmittel – sorgfältig geprüft, verantwortungsvoll zugelassen” , November 2009

 

Tables 3 to 7 show the results of residue analyses of vegetables, differentiated by type of vegetable. Annex 1 lists the MRL exceedances for conventionally cultivated fresh vegetables, and annexes 2 and 3 show the frequency distribution of the detected substances.

 

Table 3: Residues in Vegetable Samples from Conventional Cultivation, by Type of Vegetable (CVUAS 2018)
Type of Vegetable
No. Samples
Samples w/ Residues
Samples w/ Multiple Residues
Samples > MRL
No. Findings > MRL
Substances > MRL**
Leafy Vegetables
417
395 (95 %)
357 (86 %)
107 (26 %)
123
Chlorate(96x); Nicotine (8x); Tebuconazole (2x); Fosetyl, sum; Chlorpyrifos; Omethoate; Chlorpropham; Fenobucarb; Metobromuron; Diflubenzuron; Chlorfluazuron; Difenoconazole; Flutriafol; Nitenpyram; Oxadiazon; Bromoxynil; Cyfluthrin; Fluopyram; Fipronil, sum; Chlormequat, Summe
Fruiting Vegetables
428
369 (86 %)
320 (75 %)
81 (19 %)
91
Chlorate(60x); 4-CPA (4x); Etoxazole (3x); Acrinathrin (3x); Pirimiphos-methyl (2x); Tebufenpyrad (2x); Bifenthrin (2x); Tau-Fluvalinat; Ethephon; Fosetyl, sum; Chlorfenapyr; Acetamiprid; Methomyl; Clofentezin; Propiconazol; Hexaconazole; Nicotine; Trimethylsulfonium-Cation; Thiabendazole; Fipronil, sum; Cyflumetofen; Chlormequat, sum
Sprout Vegetables
139
113 (81 %)
84 (60 %)
32 (23 %)
36
Chlorate(29x); Trimethylsulfonium-Cation (2x); Fosetyl, sum; Omethoate; Dimethoate; Methomyl; Mandipropamid
Root Vegetables
91
87 (96 %)
76 (84 %)
10 (11 %)
15
Chlorate(5x); Cyromazin (2x); Fosthiazat (2x); Chlormequat, sum (2x); Thiamethoxam; Chlorpropham; Dimethomorph; Nicotine
Exotic Vegetables
1
1*
1
1
1
Chlorate
TOTAL
1076
965 (90 %)
838 (78 %)
231 (21 %)
 
 

*No percentage calculated for sample sizes under 5

**Individual samples contained more than just one compound > MRL

 

Presentation of results for each category of vegetable

Leafy vegetables contained an average of 5.6 different substances. With a rate of 0.93 mg pesticide per kg (average, excluding bromide and fosetyl (sum)), they had the highest residue amount of all types of vegetables. In particular, many herb and lettuce samples contained numerous as well as high amounts of pesticides (see also Illustration 1). The highest number was a sample of coriander of unknown origin, which contained 27 different substances.

 

Table 4: Residues in Leafy Vegetables from Conventional Cultivation (CVUAS, 2018)
Matrix
No. Samples
Samples w/ Residues
Samples w/ Multiple Residues
Samples > MRL
Substances > MRL**
Wild garlic
1
1*
1
-
 
Basil
10
9 (90 %)
8 (80 %)
6 (60 %)
Chlorate (6x); Fosetyl, sum
Leafy vegetable
1
1*
1
-
 
Celery
5
5 (100 %)
5 (100 %)
2 (40 %)
Chlorate (2x)
Chicory
9
9 (100 %)
9 (100 %)
2 (22 %)
Chlorate (2x)
Chinese Cabbage
5
5 (100 %)
5 (100 %)
-
 
Dill leaves
8
8 (100 %)
8 (100 %)
2 (25 %)
Chlorate (2x)
Oakleaf lettuce
18
18 (100 %)
18 (100 %)
3 (17 %)
Chlorate (3x)
Iceberg lettuce
36
36 (100 %)
31 (86 %)
5 (14 %)
Chlorate (5x)
Endivie
12
11 (92 %)
10 (83 %)
2 (17 %)
Chlorate (2x)
Tarragon
2
2*
2*
1*
Chlorate
Lambs lettuce
25
25 (100 %)
24 (96 %)
10 (40 %)
Chlorate (10x)
Frisee lettuce
1
1*
1*
1*
Nikotine
Kale
21
20 (95 %)
20 (95 %)
8 (38 %)
Nicotine (4x); Tebuconazole (2x); Chlorate; Chlorpropham; Difenoconazole; Fluopyram; Metobromuron
Head lettuce
40
39 (98 %)
36 (90 %)
4 (10 %)
Chlorate (4x)
Coriander
8
8 (100 %)
8 (100 %)
7 (88 %)
Chlorate (6x); Chlorfluazuron; Chlorpyrifos; Cyfluthrin; Diflubenzuron; Fenobucarb; Fipronil, sum; Nitenpyram; Oxadiazo
Cress/Garden cress
1
1*
0
1*
Chlorate
Herbs
1
1*
1*
1*
Chlorate
Spring onion
5
5 (100 %)
5 (100 %)
-
 
Lollo
8
8 (100 %)
8 (100 %)
4 (50 %)
Chlorate (4x)
Chard
10
10 (100 %)
9 (90 %)
3 (30 %)
Chlorate (3x)
Mint
5
5 (100 %)
5 (100 %)
2 (40 %)
Chlorate (2x); Flutriafol
Pak-Choy
1
1*
1*
-
 
Parley
43
42 (98 %)
39 (91 %)
12 (28 %)
Chlorate (12x)
Leek
14
13 (93 %)
13 (93 %)
2 (14 %)
Chlorate (2x)
Red-leaved chicory (radicchio)
7
4 (57 %)
0
1 (14 %)
Chlorate
Romaine lettuce
7
7 (100 %)
7 (100 %)
1 (14 %)
Chlorate
Brussels Sprouts
15
15 (100 %)
15 (100 %)
-
 
Red cabbage
10
9 (90 %)
4 (40 %)
1 (10 %)
Chlormequatchloride, sum
Rucola
26
26 (100 %)
24 (92 %)
12 (46 %)
Chlorate (12x); Nicotine
Chives
8
8 (100 %)
8 (100 %)
2 (25 %)
Chlorate (2x)
Cutting lettuce
3
3*
2*
1*
Chlorate
Spinach
20
20 (100 %)
20 (100 %)
8 (40 %)
Chlorate (7x); Nicotine (2x); Bromoxynil; Omethoate
White cabbage
22
11 (50 %)
6 (27 %)
-
 
Savoy cabbage
3
2*
0
-
 
Lemon grass
5
5 (100 %)
2 (40 %)
3 (60 %)
Chlorate (3x)
Cos lettuce
1
1*
1*
-
 
TOTAL
417
395 (95 %)
357 (86 %)
107 (26 %)
 

*No percentage calculated for sample sizes under 5

**Individual samples contained more than just one compound > MRL

 

Most of the MRL exceedances concerned chlorate, although these amounts did not result from an application of an herbicide (see section on chlorate).

The acute reference dose (ARfD; see Info Box “Acute Reference Dose”) for nicotine was exceeded in two samples of kale. These two samples were judged as unsafe, in accordance with regulation (EC) No. 178/2002. There are many pathways for nicotine, but due to the relatively high oral toxicity, even fairly low amounts are problematic. Further commentary and assessments on this topic can be found on our website [1,2].

 

Info Box

Acute Reference Dose (ARfD)

For the evaluation of pesticides that have a high, acute toxicity and that can cause health damage after just a single or short-term intake, the Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) value is only appropriate to a limited extent. Since the ADI is derived from long-term studies, it is possibly inadequate as a measure of acute risk from residues in food. Therefore, in addition to the ADI value, a further exposure limit has been established, the so-called acute reference dose (ARfD). The World Health Organization defined the ARfD as the amount of a substance one can consume over the period of one day or in one meal without resulting in any discernible health risk. Other than for the ADI, the ARfD value is not determined for every pesticide, but only for such substances that, when taken in sufficient quantities, could cause damage to one’s health even after just one exposure.

 

EU Pesticides database

EFSA calculation model Pesticide Residue Intake Model “PRIMo”–rev.3

 

Fruiting vegetables contained an average of 4.4 different substances per sample, but only 0.14 mg pesticide residues (excluding bromide and fosetyl (sum)), which means the detected substances are often found in only small concentrations. This doesn’t necessarily mean, however, that fruiting vegetables are treated less often or with lower concentrations of pesticides than other types of vegetables during vegetation. Rather, it has become much more common to wash vegetables after the harvest, thereby removing pesticide residues. In the last few years, after-harvest treatment has become more and more automated and wide-spread.

Bell peppers, zucchini, tomatoes and aubergine frequently contained multiple pesticides. The frontrunner was a sample of chili pepper from Pakistan, with 22 different substances (see also Illustration 1).

 

Table 5: Residues in Fruiting Vegetables from Conventional Cultivation (CVUAS, 2018)
Matrix
No. Samples
Samples w/ Residues
Samples w/ Multiple Residues
Samples > MRL
Substances > MRL**
Aubergine
38
35 (92 %)
33 (87 %)
13 (34 %)
Chlorate (11x); 4-CPA; Acetamiprid; Clofentezine; Methomyl
Green beans
46
45 (98 %)
38 (83 %)
10 (22 %)
Chlorate (8x); Bifenthrin (2x); Fosetyl, sum; Hexaconazole
Chili peppers
8
8 (100 %)
7 (88 %)
4 (50 %)
Chlorfenapyr; Ethephon; Fipronil, sum; tau-Fluvalinate; Tebufenpyrad
Peas w/ pod
3
3*
3*
-
 
Bell peppers
107
95 (89 %)
85 (79 %)
17 (16 %)
Chlorate (11x); Etoxazole (3x); Acrinathrin (2x); Pirimiphos-methyl (2x); Cyflumetofen; Tebufenpyrad
Cucumber
27
25 (93 %)
24 (89 %)
5 (19 %)
Chlorate (3x); Acrinathrin; Trimethylsulfonium cation
Pumpkin
9
6 (67 %)
3 (33 %)
-
 
Melon
50
48 (96 %)
44 (88 %)
4 (8 %)
Chlorate (3x); Propiconazole; Thiabendazole
Okra (Ladyfingers)
5
5 (100 %)
4 (80 %)
2 (40 %)
Chlorate; Nicotine
Chili pepper
1
1*
1*
0
 
Tomato
76
66 (87 %)
55 (72 %)
17 (22 %)
Chlorate (17x); Chlormequatchloride, sum
Zucchini
30
27 (90 %)
22 (73 %)
9 (30 %)
Chlorate (6x); 4-CPA (3x)
Sweet corn
28
5 (18 %)
1 (4 %)
-
 
TOTAL
428
369 (86 %)
320 (75 %)
81 (19 %)
 

*No percentage calculated for sample sizes under 5

**Individual samples contained more than just one compound > MRL

 

The acute reference dose (ARfD; see Info Box), based on the EFSA PRIMo-Model for young children, was exhausted by 200 % by a sample of aubergine from Italy for the substance methomyl. This sample was judged to be unsafe and thus not suitable for human consumption, in line with regulation (EC) No. 178/2002.

 

Sprout vegetables contained an average of 2.4 different substances and 0.33 mg pesticide residues per kg sample (average pesticide amount, excluding bromide and fosetyl, sum).

 

Table 6: Residues in Sprout Vegetables from Conventional Cultivation (CVUAS, 2018)
Matrix
No. Samples
Samples w/ Residues
Samples w/ Multiple Residues
Samples > MRL
Substances > MRL**
Artichoke
2
1*
1*
-
 
Cauliflower
6
3 (50 %)
2 (33 %)
1 (17 %)
Chlorate
Broccoli
25
23 (92 %)
18 (72 %)
6 (24 %)
Chlorate (6x)
Fennel
9
9 (100 %)
9 (100 %)
3 (33 %)
Chlorate (3x)
Cereal sprouts
4
4*
4*
2*
Chlorate (2x)
Garlic
2
2*
1*
1*
Chlorate
Kohlrabi
19
16 (84 %)
7 (37 %)
4 (21 %)
Chlorate (3x); Dimethoate; Mandipropamid; Omethoate
Mung bean sprouts
1
1*
1*
1*
Chlorate
Shallots
2
2*
2*
1*
Fosetyl, sum
Soy bean sprouts
2
1*
1*
1*
Chlorate
Asparagus
45
29 (64 %)
17 (38 %)
12 (27 %)
Chlorate (11x); Trimethylsulfonium cation (2x); Methomyl
Onion
22
22 (100 %)
21 (95 %)
-
 
TOTAL
139
113 (81 %)
84 (60 %)
32 (23 %)
 

*No percentage calculated for sample sizes under 5

**Individual samples contained more than just one compound > MRL

 

Root vegetables contained an average of 4.3 substances per sample and a comparatively low level of pesticide residues of 0.076 mg/kg sample (average pesticide amount excluding bromide and fosetyl, sum). The detected substances were often found in only trace amounts.

 

Table 7: Residues in Root Vegetables from Conventional Cultivation (CVUAS, 2018)
Matrix
No. Samples
Samples w/ Residues
Samples w/ Multiple Residues
Samples > MRL
Substances > MRL**
Ginger
8
8 (100 %)
7 (88 %)
4 (50 %)
Chlormequat, Summe (2x); Cyromazin (2x); Fosthiazat (2x); Chlorat; Nikotin; Thiamethoxam
Celeriac
6
5 (83 %)
5 (83 %)
1 (17 %)
Dimethomorph
Rutabaga
1
1*
1*
-
 
Carrot
14
14 (100 %)
13 (93 %)
-
 
Parsnip
4
4*
4*
1*
Chlorpropham
Parsley root
1
1*
1*
-
 
Radish, black ~
37
36 (97 %)
33 (89 %)
2 (5,4 %)
Chlorat (2x)
Radish
9
9 (100 %)
7 (78 %)
1 (11 %)
Chlorat
Beetroots
9
7 (78 %)
4 (44 %)
1 (11 %)
Chlorat
Black Salsify
1
1*
1*
-
 
Root vegetable
1
1*
0
-
 
TOTAL
91
87 (96 %)
76 (84 %)
10 (11 %)
 

*No percentage calculated for sample sizes under 5

**Individual samples contained more than just one compound > MRL

 

Multiple residues

A majority of the vegetable samples were also detected with multiple residues in 2018; 838 of the samples (78 %) contained multiple residues. Illustration 1 depicts the number of pesticides found in the different types of vegetables.

The residue findings are closely related to the type of samples analyzed and their country of origin. Since the particular focus and risk-oriented questions are different each year, the results from one year cannot be seen as representative of the general situation, and are only minimally comparable.

 

Info Box

Multiple Residues

When more than one pesticide substance is detected on or in food, this is referred to as multiple residues. There are several conceivable causes for the occurrance of multiple residues. In addition to the use of different substances during the growth phase to combat various pests, they can also stem from, e.g. the application of combination therapies containing several substances, or an intended change in substance in order to prevent the development of resistant pathogens. Furthermore, an additional application during storage or transport, or transmission from a contaminated transport container or conveyor belt, is also possible. Small amounts of substance residues can stem from earlier applications or from the drifting of plant protection measures of neighboring fields. Another possible reason is the occasional compilation of sample food batches coming from different producers who have used different pesticide substances. . Finally, the improper conduct of good agricultural practices with reference to the use of pesticides cannot always be ruled out.

 

References: Federal Office of Consumer Protection and Food Safety (BVL) Background information: Multiple Residues of Plant Protection Substances in and on Foods.

 

Illustration 1.

Illustration 1: Multiple Residues in Various Types of Vegetables (CVUAS, 2018)

 

Chlorate

In addition to stemming from the application of herbicides, chlorate residues in plant-based foods can also come from other sources (see Info Box). In comparison to fruit, chlorate findings play a bigger role in vegetables. In this reporting year chlorate was detected in 359 vegetable samples (33 %), with amounts up to 2.0 mg/kg (green asparagus from Peru). This is worse than the last two years, when the rate for chlorate was 29 % and 21 %, respectively.

The European Food Safety Authority established an acute reference dose (ARfD) of 0.036 mg chlorate per kg body weight. Applying the PRIMo model based on small children, and using a variability factor of 1, none of the samples exceeded the toxicological reference value. No acute health risk was thus determined. Nevertheless, the Federal Institute for Risk Assessment (BfR) recommends continuing efforts to reduce the possible entries of chlorate into the food chain and the resulting risk to consumers [3].

 

Info Box

Chlorate

Chlorates are effective as both herbicides and biocides. Since 2008, however, chlorate is no longer authorized for use as a pesticide* in the EU. Sodium chlorate may also no longer be used in biocide products.
The definition for „pesticide residues“ in Regulation (EC) Nr. 396/2005 also encompasses residues from pesticidal substances in food (including substances no longer authorized) that have pathways other than from the use of plant protectors (so-called dual-use substances), such as chlorate in food. Chlorate is thereby covered by the EU-wide valid default MRL of 0.01 mg/kg, in accordance with regulation (EC) No. 396/2005. In December 2017 in Germany maximum values were determined for the treatment of drinking water when the disinfection can’t be otherwise guaranteed: 70 µg/L chlorate for long-term application and 200 µg/L chlorate for a short-term dosage.**
The presence of chlorate in food can result not only from its use as a pesticide, but also from environmental pollution (contaminated rain- or irrigation water and soil), or as a residual of food production techniques, including methods used in farming, processing, preparation, or treatment. The application of biocides, from which chlorate can result, is another possible source of contamination. In general, chlorate can be formed as a by-product of the disinfection of drinking/ industrial water with chlorine gas, hypochlorite, or chlorine dioxide.
Chlorate inhibits, reversibly, the intake of iodine into the thyroid gland and can cause unwanted health effects, especially in sensitive people such as children, pregnant women, or people with thyroid dysfunction. In addition to affecting thyroid function, chlorate can also damage the erythrocytes (formation of methaemoglobin, haemolysis).***

The member states are carrying out a monitoring program to determine the degree of food and drinking water contamination, in order to provide data for a toxicological evaluation by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). Specific residue MRLs will then be established based on this information.

 

* 10 November 2008 decision of the Commision regarding the non-inclusion of chlorate in Annex I of the RL 91/414/EWG of the Council and the repeal of authorization for pesticides containing this substance (ABl. L307/7 from 18.11.2008)

** Chlorate in drinking water: https://www.umweltbundesamt.de/sites/default/files/medien/421/dokumente/19_bekanntmachung_der_liste_der_aufbereitungsstoffe_ und_desinfektionsverfahren_gemaess_ss_11_trinkwv_2001.pdf

*** Federal Institute for Risk Assessment (BfR), Recommendations of the BfR for health-based assessment of chlorate residues in food, from 12 May 2014, accessed on 6 Feb. 2019, http://www.bfr.bund.de/cm/343/vorschlaege-des-bfr-zur-gesundheitlichen-bewertung-von-chloratrueckstaenden-in-lebensmitteln.pdf.

 

In 2018, 191 samples (18 %) were reported for violations, due to the exceedance of the MRL for chlorate (13 % in 2017; 12 % in 2016; 13 % in 2015; and 12 % in 2014). Illustration 2 shows the distribution.

As clearly seen in the diagram, most of the samples only minimally exceeded the maximum value.

 

"Illustration 2:	Frequency distribution of chlorate quantities above the maximum value (CVUAS, 2018)"

Illustration 2: Frequency distribution of chlorate quantities above the maximum value (CVUAS, 2018)

 

Discussions have been carried out in the EU for several years regarding the stipulation of specific maximum chlorate levels that can address the overall problem of chlorate (see Info Box). Currently, there is a hearing in process being conducted by interest groups. Recommendations for maximum levels are being made, e.g. 0.02 mg/kg for several fruits, 0.1 mg/kg for tomatoes, and 0.7 mg/kg, the highest level, for oil seeds and olives. We are hoping for an agreement soon. Analyses of chlorate residues will be continued in 2019.

 

Phosphonic Acid and Fosetyl

Phosphonic acid is included in the legal MRL for fosetyl (sum of fosetyl and phosphonic acids and their salts, calculated as fosetyl). Phosphonic acid was detected in 216 samples of vegetables (20 %), in amounts up to 138 mg/kg (= 185 mg fosetyl, sum). Only seven samples were detected with fosetyl per se (3x lettuce, 3x arugula, and 1 cucumber). Just two samples (basil from Thailand with 185 mg/kg fosetyl-al, sum; and shallots from France with 7.4 mg/kg fosetyl-al, sum) were in violation due to an exceedance of the MRL.

The average rate of pesticide per sample is strongly influenced by the comparatively high average amount of fosetyl residues. Therefore, Table 1 presents the average rates of pesticides per sample both with and without fosetyl (sum).

 

Info Box

Phosphonic Acid and Fosetyl

Both fosetyl and phosphonic acid are fungicides that are permitted for use in the EU, and fall under the applications area of regulation (EC) No. 396/2005, regardless of their path of entry. In addition to the use of a fungicide, another feasible means of exposure could be via a leaf fertilizer that contains phosphonates (salts of phosphonic acid). The categorization of phosphonic acids as a fungicide has precluded this application for some years now. The still high findings indicate that plants retain the phosphonic acids, only eliminating them over a period of time.

 

Table 8: Phosphonic Acid and Fosetyl Residues in Vegetables from Conventional Cultivation (CVUAS 2018)
Matrix
No. Positive Samples
Phosphonic Acid (mg/kg)
Fosetyl (mg/kg)
Leafy Vegetables
90
0.083-138
0.046-0.69 
Fruiting Vegetables
80
0.055-11.8
0.010
Sprout Vegetables
30
0.075-5.5
-
Root Vegetables
16
0.053-11.7
-
TOTAL
216
0.053-138
0.010-0.69 

 

Bromide

Bromide (degradation product of the fumigant methyl bromide) tends to appear in high amounts in vegetable samples. Bromide can also occur naturally, as it comes from the soil. There are also indications that soil near the sea can have naturally higher levels of bromide; Italy often mentions this as a source. For this reason, only amounts > 10 mg/kg are included in the assessment, because only from this amount can an application of the fumigant methyl bromide be assumed. Bromide amounts > 10 mg/kg were detected in 31 samples, with quantities up to 48.5 mg/kg (coriander from Thailand). In the previous year the forerunner was a sample of basil from Thailand, with 45.5 mg/kg. None of the samples were found to be in violation due to an exceedance of the MRL for bromide. Since the average pesticide amount is strongly influenced by the high levels of bromide, the statistics presented in Table 1 are also provided with-out bromide.

Because methyl bromide is a fast-acting, effective fumigant, it was widely used over a long period of time. Methyl bromide is very damaging to the ozone layer, however. In 1987, therefore, an international contract was made among 175 countries (The Montreal Protocol), in which the countries agreed to limit the use of methyl bromide until 2015, using alternative fumigants. Since 2015 the use of methylbromide has been banned world-wide. A reduction of bromide residues is thus expected in the coming years.

 

Table 9: Bromide Residues > 10 mg/kg in Vegetables from Conventional Cultivation (CVUAS, 2018)
Matrix Country of Origin Amount in Sample (mg/kg)
Aubergine Italy 10.2
Dill Italy (3x) 10.3 / 10.7 / 18.7
Marocco 11.3
Lambs lettuce Italy 13.9
Head Lettuce Italy 24.6
Coriander Germany 12.1
Thailand (2x) 36.7 / 48.5
Mangold Italy (3x) 10.7 / 12.7 / 13.6
Melone Honduras 12.4
Minze Spain 13.1
Parsley leaves Italy (4x) 10.7 / 11.7 / 12.1 / 12.7
Radish Germany 10.8
Arugula Germany 12.1
Italy (4x) 12.5 / 14.9 / 16.2 / 25.4
Spinach Italy (2x) 15.1 / 16.4
Spain 14.8
Tomato Italy 11.2
lemongrass Thailand (2x) 10.2 / 14.2

 

Photo Credits

CVUA Stuttgart, Pesticide laboratory

 

References

[1] Nicotine in Food – What Does Smoking Have to Do With It?

[2] Nikotin aus Tabak – ein „natürliches“ Mittel gegen Pflanzenschädlinge?

[3] Der Eintrag von Chlorat in die Nahrungskette sollte reduziert werden; Aktualisierte Stellungnahme Nr. 007/2018 des BfR vom 15. Februar 2018

 

Annexes

Annex 1: Substances with MRL Exceedances, Itemized by Type of Vegetable and Country of Origin (CVUAS, 2018)
Compound MRL Exceedances by:
4-CPA Zucchini (Turkey 3x); Aubergine (Italy)
Acetamiprid Aubergine (Spain)
Acrinathrin Cucumber (Spain); Bell peppers (Turkey 2x)
Bifenthrin Green beans (Morocco 2x)
Bromoxynil Spinach (Italy)
Chlorat Spinach (Spain 2x, Germany 3x, Italy 2x); Chives (Ethiopia, Germany); Dill leaves (Morocco, Italy); Broccoli (Spain 4x, Not Specified 2x); Iceberg lettuce (Spain 5x); Lambs lettuce (Italy, France 4x, Germany 5x); Chicory (Germany 2x); Chard (Italy 2x, Germany); Kohlrabi (Spain, Germany, Portugal); Asparagus (Peru 5x, Mexico 2x, Italy 2x, Spain 2x); Tomato (Spain 4x, Turkey 3x, Tunisia, Germany 3x, Not Specified 2x, Belgium, Netherlands 3x); Parsley (Germany 5x, Italy 3x, Not Specified 2x, Spain 2x); Fennel (Italy 2x, Germany); Okra (Ladyfingers) (India); Water spinach (Thailand); Zucchini (Spain 5x, Turkey); Rucola (Germany 8x, Italy 4x); Head lettuce (Italy 3x, Germany); Lollo (Not Specified, Italy, Germany 2x); Lemon grass (Thailand 3x); Bell peppers (Spain 4x, Netherlands 5x, Belgium, Hungary); Cauliflower (Not Specified); Garlic (Not Specified); Cucumber (Spain, Netherlands, Germany); Coriander (Spain 2x, Not Specified, Germany, Thailand 2x); Radish, black ~ (Italy 2x); Aubergine (Turkey, Spain 2x, Belgium 2x, Not Specified, Italy, Netherlands 2x, Germany 2x); Green beans (Not Specified, Morocco 5x, Spain, Germany); Red-leaved chicory (radicchio) (Italy); Romaine lettuce (Spain); Endive (Belgium 2x); Basil (Germany 4x, Israel, Not Specified); Oakleaf lettuce (Germany 3x); Cutting lettuce (Germany); Radish (Germany); Ginger (Peru); Watermelon (Not Specified, Spain); Tarragon (Israel); Herbs (Germany); Mint (Spain, Germany); Melon (Spain); Cereal sprouts (France, Not Specified); Celery (Spain 2x); Cress/Garden cress (Netherlands); Leek (Germany 2x); Soybean sprouts (Germany); Kale (Germany); Beetroots (Germany); Mung bean sprouts (Not Specified)
Chlorfenapyr Chili peppers (Pakistan)
Chlorfluazuron Coriander (Not Specified)
Chlormequatchloride, Summe Tomato (Germany); Ginger (China 2x); Red cabbage (Not Specified)
Chlorpropham Kale (Germany); Parsnip (Germany)
Chlorpyrifos Coriander (Not Specified)

Clofentezine

Aubergine (Italy)

Cyflumetofen

Bell peppers (Turkey)

Cyfluthrin

Coriander (Not Specified)

Cyromazine

Ginger (Not Specified, China)

Difenoconazole

Kale (Germany)

Diflubenzuron

Coriander (Not Specified)

Dimethoate

Kohlrabi (Germany)

Dimethomorph

Celeriac (Germany)

Ethephon

Chili peppers (Turkey)

Etoxazole

Bell peppers (Turkey 3x)

Fenobucarb

Coriander (Not Specified)

Fipronil, sum

Chili peppers (Pakistan); Coriander (Not Specified)

Fluopyram

Kale (Germany)

Flutriafol

Mint (Spain)

Fosetyl, sum

Green beans (Morocco); Basil (Israel); Shallots (France)

Fosthiazate

Ginger (Not Specified, China)

Hexaconazole

Green beans (Morocco)

Mandipropamid

Kohlrabi (Germany)

Methomyl

Asparagus (Peru); Aubergine (Italy)

Metobromuron

Kale (Germany)

Nicotine

Kale (Germany 4x); Spinach (Germany, Italy); Ginger (Peru); Rucola (Germany); Okra (Ladyfingers) (India); Frisee lettuce (Germany)

Nitenpyram

Coriander (Not Specified)

Omethoate

Spinach (Germany); Kohlrabi (Germany)

Oxadiazon

Coriander (Thailand)

Pirimiphos-methyl

Bell peppers (Turkey 2x)

Propiconazole

Melon (Spain)

tau-Fluvalinate

Chili peppers (Turkey)

Tebuconazole

Kale (Germany 2x)

Tebufenpyrad

Bell peppers (Turkey); Chili peppers (Turkey)

Thiabendazole

Melon (Spain)

Thiamethoxam

Ginger (Not Specified)

Trimethylsulfonium cation

Cucumber (Turkey); Asparagus (Mexico 2x)

 

 

Annex 2: Frequency of detection for the most important substances for vegetables, itemized by type of vegetable as percentage of analyzed samples (CVUAS, 2018)

Annex 2: Frequency of detection for the most important substances for vegetables.

Annex 2: Frequency of detection for the most important substances for vegetables, itemized by type of vegetable as percentage of analyzed samples (CVUAS, 2018).

Pursuant to valid residue definition; see Annex 4 A = Acaricide; B = Bactericide; F = Fungicide; H = Herbicide; I = Insekticide; M = Metabolite; G = Growth Regulator

 

 

Annex 3: Frequency of pesticide residue findings, pursuant to the legal residue definition, in fresh vegetables from conventional cultivation (CVUAS, 2018)
Pesticides and Metabolites
No. Positive Findings
mg/kg
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
< 0,01
< 0,05
< 0,2
< 1
< 5
< 20
> 20
Max.
Chlorate
359
148
160
41
9
1
0
0
2
Boscalid
301
182
72
22
10
14
0
1
37
Azoxystrobin
285
168
63
25
21
5
1
2
33.2
Fosetyl, sum
216
0
0
31
74
77
22
12
185
Fluopyram
186
122
48
14
2
0
0
0
0.3
Dimethomorph
161
87
42
20
9
3
0
0
6
Pendimethalin
146
124
18
3
1
0
0
0
0.2
Fludioxonil
131
91
25
7
8
0
0
0
0.88
Cyprodinil
125
69
37
14
4
1
0
0
1.5
Imidacloprid
123
82
27
12
1
1
0
0
1
Difenoconazole
120
63
29
12
13
3
0
0
2.1
Chlorantraniliprole
118
71
33
8
3
3
0
0
2.4
lambda-Cyhalothrin
115
68
28
10
9
0
0
0
0.78
Spirotetramat, sum
113
43
51
16
2
1
0
0
5.3
Metalaxyl (-M)
110
92
14
3
1
0
0
0
0.28
Pyraclostrobin
107
57
27
11
8
4
0
0
5
Acetamiprid
103
44
32
22
4
1
0
0
1.6
Iprodione
85
53
15
6
9
2
0
0
2
Thiamethoxam
84
58
24
0
2
0
0
0
0.26
Acetamiprid met. IM-2-1
69
46
18
1
3
1
0
0
4.8
Tebuconazole
69
50
10
9
0
0
0
0
0.14
Thiacloprid
68
44
14
8
1
1
0
0
1.9
Propamocarb
67
13
24
11
16
3
0
0
6.7
Spinosad
66
46
14
3
1
2
0
0
6.3
Mandipropamid
59
15
12
10
15
7
0
0
3.6
Indoxacarb
57
37
16
2
2
0
0
0
0.55
Clothianidin
56
52
3
1
0
0
0
0
0.11
Bromide
49
0
0
0
0
18
27
4
48.5
Triadimenol
48
32
11
5
0
0
0
0
0.081
Metalaxyl met. CGA94689
46
41
5
0
0
0
0
0
0.021
Dithiocarbamates
44
0
4
18
15
7
0
0
3.5
Propamocarb-N-oxide
39
6
14
11
8
0
0
0
0.64
Propyzamide
38
36
2
0
0
0
0
0
0.014
Chloridazon, sum
34
8
22
3
1
0
0
0
0.2
Chlorpyrifos
32
29
2
0
0
1
0
0
1.8
Fluopicolide
32
23
6
3
0
0
0
0
0.16
Flutriafol
32
17
12
3
0
0
0
0
0.068
Metrafenone
32
19
8
4
1
0
0
0
0.22
Linuron
31
20
9
2
0
0
0
0
0.084
Deltamethrin
30
14
12
3
1
0
0
0
0.24
Gibberellic acid
29
8
20
1
0
0
0
0
0.096
Propamocarb-N-desmethyl
29
8
15
3
2
1
0
0
2.3
Pyriproxyfen
29
21
7
1
0
0
0
0
0.17
Cypermethrin
28
17
6
3
2
0
0
0
0.6
Nicotine
28
0
27
1
0
0
0
0
0.058
Flonicamid, sum
27
13
7
5
2
0
0
0
0.29
Pymetrozine
27
22
1
4
0
0
0
0
0.16
Fluopyram-Benzamide
26
20
5
1
0
0
0
0
0.057
Pyrimethanil
25
17
7
1
0
0
0
0
0.14
Fenhexamid
24
11
10
2
0
1
0
0
1.3
Chlorothalonil
21
11
2
1
7
0
0
0
0.64
Imidacloprid, Olefin-
21
18
3
0
0
0
0
0
0.031
Iprodione met. RP30228
21
7
8
5
1
0
0
0
0.3
Myclobutanil
21
18
2
1
0
0
0
0
0.068
Fenpyrazamine
20
10
8
2
0
0
0
0
0.13
Fipronil, sum
19
16
3
0
0
0
0
0
0.019
Abamectin, sum
18
18
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.005
Chlorpyrifos-methyl
18
11
4
2
1
0
0
0
0.25
Chlorothalonil-4-hydroxy
18
16
2
0
0
0
0
0
0.013
Trimethylsulfonium cation
18
5
10
2
1
0
0
0
0.22
Hexythiazox
17
10
5
2
0
0
0
0
0.1
Prosulfocarb
17
15
2
0
0
0
0
0
0.044
Prothioconazole-desthio
17
15
2
0
0
0
0
0
0.04
Trifloxystrobin
17
12
3
1
1
0
0
0
0.92
Ametoctradin
16
6
10
0
0
0
0
0
0.043
Carbendazim, sum
15
13
1
1
0
0
0
0
0.085
Imazalil
15
5
3
3
4
0
0
0
0.79
Pirimicarb
15
10
2
3
0
0
0
0
0.16
Spiromesifen
15
2
10
3
0
0
0
0
0.16
Bifenazate, sum
13
1
9
3
0
0
0
0
0.16
Chlorpropham
13
9
4
0
0
0
0
0
0.026
Cyprodinil met. CGA304075
13
12
1
0
0
0
0
0
0.016
DEET
13
13
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.007
ETU
13
7
3
2
1
0
0
0
0.2
Maleic hydrazide
13
0
2
1
0
10
0
0
6.2
Terbutylazine-desethyl
13
12
1
0
0
0
0
0
0.015
Boscalid met. M510F01
12
7
5
0
0
0
0
0
0.035
Clomazone
12
12
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.004
Cyazofamid
12
7
3
2
0
0
0
0
0.068
Cyflufenamid
12
11
1
0
0
0
0
0
0.011
Etofenprox
12
8
3
1
0
0
0
0
0.12
Metribuzin
12
12
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.005
1-NAD and 1-NAA. sum
11
9
2
0
0
0
0
0
0.024
Cyromazine
11
2
7
0
2
0
0
0
0.55
Epoxiconazole
11
11
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.003
Fluazifop
11
7
3
1
0
0
0
0
0.1
Methoxyfenozide
11
4
7
0
0
0
0
0
0.026
Aclonifen
10
10
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.007
Omethoate
10
8
2
0
0
0
0
0
0.022
Oxadiazon
10
4
5
1
0
0
0
0
0.089
Penconazole
10
10
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.004
Pyridaben
10
4
3
2
1
0
0
0
0.34
Tebufenpyrad
10
5
4
0
1
0
0
0
0.31
Spinetoram
9
6
3
0
0
0
0
0
0.022
Dimethoate
8
7
0
1
0
0
0
0
0.17
Imazalil met. FK411
8
5
3
0
0
0
0
0
0.025
Metobromuron
8
7
1
0
0
0
0
0
0.011
Pyridalyl
8
7
1
0
0
0
0
0
0.041
Terbuthylazine
8
6
2
0
0
0
0
0
0.048
Azadirachtin A
7
5
1
1
0
0
0
0
0.086
Chlormequatchloride, sum
7
1
4
1
1
0
0
0
0.22
Metalaxyl met. CGA108905
7
7
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.006
o-Phenylphenol
7
0
7
0
0
0
0
0
0.021
Tri-Allate
7
7
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.002
2.4-D
6
4
2
0
0
0
0
0
0.039
4-CPA
6
2
3
1
0
0
0
0
0.083
Bifenthrin
6
4
1
1
0
0
0
0
0.06
Buprofezin
6
5
1
0
0
0
0
0
0.022
Chloridazon, Methyl-desphenyl
6
5
1
0
0
0
0
0
0.015
Fenpyroximate
6
3
2
1
0
0
0
0
0.062
Fluxapyroxad
6
6
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.004
Kresoxim-methyl
6
4
2
0
0
0
0
0
0.019
Piperonyl butoxide
6
4
2
0
0
0
0
0
0.024
Thiabendazole
6
5
1
0
0
0
0
0
0.032
Acrinathrin
5
2
2
1
0
0
0
0
0.093
BAC (n=8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18)
5
0
3
2
0
0
0
0
0.078
Bupirimate
5
2
2
1
0
0
0
0
0.18
Chlorfenapyr
5
4
1
0
0
0
0
0
0.04
Etoxazole
5
2
3
0
0
0
0
0
0.045
Fenpropimorph
5
5
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.009
Fosthiazate
5
3
1
1
0
0
0
0
0.065
Nereistoxin
5
1
3
1
0
0
0
0
0.11
Pirimicarb. desmethyl
5
0
5
0
0
0
0
0
0.046
Pirimicarb-desamido-desmethyl
5
5
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.008
Thiophanate-methyl
5
2
2
0
1
0
0
0
0.21
DDT, sum
4
2
2
0
0
0
0
0
0.018
Dimethenamid, sum
4
4
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.004
Ethirimol
4
4
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.007
Fluazifop, Sum
4
1
3
0
0
0
0
0
0.044
Metaflumizone
4
0
3
0
1
0
0
0
0.29
Pirimicarb-desamido
4
4
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.007
Pirimicarb-desmethyl-formamido-
4
2
2
0
0
0
0
0
0.018
Quizalofop, sum
4
3
1
0
0
0
0
0
0.015
Tetraconazole
4
4
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.005
Amisulbrom
3
0
0
3
0
0
0
0
0.19
Benalaxyl
3
3
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.006
Bromoxynil
3
2
1
0
0
0
0
0
0.02
Cyantraniliprole
3
3
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.008
Cyfluthrin
3
2
0
1
0
0
0
0
0.077
DDAC (n=8,. 10, 12)
3
0
3
0
0
0
0
0
0.04
Aldrin/Dieldrin, sum
3
3
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.003
Emamectin B1a/B1b
3
1
2
0
0
0
0
0
0.03
Ethofumesate
3
3
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.005
Fenamidone
3
1
2
0
0
0
0
0
0.027
Folpet
3
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
0.05
Lufenuron
3
3
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.008
Mepanipyrim
3
1
2
0
0
0
0
0
0.034
Pencycuron
3
0
3
0
0
0
0
0
0.047
Procymidone
3
2
1
0
0
0
0
0
0.01
Proquinazid
3
1
2
0
0
0
0
0
0.023
Pyrethrins
3
0
0
3
0
0
0
0
0.17
Teflubenzuron
3
1
0
2
0
0
0
0
0.087
2.4-D, sum
2
0
2
0
0
0
0
0
0.037
Atrazine-desethyl
2
2
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.005
Carbanilide
2
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0.01
Cyflumetofen
2
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0.017
Fenazaquin
2
0
0
1
1
0
0
0
0.49
Fenobucarb
2
0
2
0
0
0
0
0
0.028
Flupyradifurone
2
0
2
0
0
0
0
0
0.045
Haloxyfop
2
2
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.002
Hexaconazole
2
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0.028
Lenacil
2
2
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.001
Metamitron
2
2
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.002
Methomyl
2
0
1
0
1
0
0
0
0.2
Oxyfluorfen
2
2
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.006
Penthiopyrad
2
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0.022
Pirimiphos-methyl
2
0
1
0
1
0
0
0
0.5
Prochloraz, sum
2
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0.02
Propiconazole
2
1
0
1
0
0
0
0
0.087
Spirodiclofen
2
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0.021
Sulfoxaflor
2
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0.021
tau-Fluvalinate
2
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0.016
Tebufenozide
2
1
0
1
0
0
0
0
0.14
Triadimefon
2
2
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.003
2-Naphthoxyacetic acid
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.005
3-Pyridinecarboxaldehyde
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.005
Ametryn
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.004
Atrazine
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.005
Atrazine-desisopropyl
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.001
Benfluralin
1
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0.048
Benthiavalicarb-isopropyl
1
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0.011
Benzyladenine
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0.05
Biphenyl
1
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0.018
Bromopropylate
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.007
Captan
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.006
Carbanilide
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.004
Carbofuran, sum
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.002
Chlorfluazuron
1
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0.22
Clethodim-sulfoxide
1
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0.036
Clofentezine
1
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0.037
Cyproconazole
1
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0.026
Diazinon
1
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0.23
Diethofencarb
1
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0.015
Diflubenzuron
1
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0.54
Dikegulac
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.002
Dodine
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.001
Endosulfan, sum
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.003
Ethephon
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
1.1
Ethephon metabolite HEPA
1
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0.65
Etridiazole
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0.06
Famoxadone
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0.12
Fenamiphos, sum
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.001
Fenbutatin oxide
1
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0.012
Fenvalerat and Esfenvalerat, sum
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.006
Fluazinam
1
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0.011
Flucythrinate
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.006
Flufenoxuron
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.007
Fluoxastrobin
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.002
Flutolanil
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.001
Formetanate
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.002
Hexachlorobenzene
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.002
Icaridin
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.004
Iprovalicarb
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.002
Isoprocarb
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.001
Malathion, sum
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.004
MCPA
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.002
MCPB
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.002
Mepiquat
1
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0.012
Metalaxyl met. CGA67869
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.002
Metazachlor
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.001
Methabenzthiazuron
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.003
Methamidophos
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.006
Methiocarb, sum
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.004
Metolachlor, sum
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.002
Metoxuron
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.001
Napropamide
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.008
Nitenpyram
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0.11
Novaluron
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.002
Oxamyl-oxime
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.002
Paclobutrazol
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.001
Phenmedipham
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0.055
Phosalone
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.007
Profenofos
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.002
Prometryn
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.002
Pyriofenone
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.002
Quinclorac
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.005
Quinoxyfen
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.003
Quintozene, sum
1
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0.022
Clethodim, sum
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.008
Triflumizole, sum
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.002

* Bromide can also occur naturally, so only amounts > 5 mg/kg are included.

 

Annex 4: Substances and metabolites included in the residue definition and only included in the calculation as the sum (one residue)
Parameter Included in the residue definition and analytically recorded
1-Naphthylessigsäure, sum 1-Naphthylacetamid
1-Naphthylessigsäure
Abamectin Avermectin B1a
Avermectin B1b
8,9-Z-Avermectin B1a
Aldicarb, sum Aldicarb
Aldicarb-sulfoxid
Aldicarb-sulfon
Amitraz, total Amitraz
BTS 27271
Benzalkoniumchlorid, sum (BAC) Benzyldimethyloctylammonium chloride (BAC-C8)
Benzyldimethyldecylammonium chloride (BAC-C10)
Benzyldodecyldimethylammonium chloride (BAC-C12)
Benzyldimethyltetradecylammonium chloride (BAC-C14
Benzylhexadecyldimethylammonium chloride (BAC-C16)
Benzyldimethylstearylammonium chloride (BAC-C18)
Carbofuran, sum Carbofuran
3-Hydroxy-Carbofuran
Chloridazon, sum Chloridazon
Chloridazon-desphenyl
DDT, sum DDE, pp-
DDT, pp-
DDD, pp-
DDT, op-
Dialkyldimethylammonium chloride, sum (DDAC) Dioctyldimethylammonium chloride (DDAC-C8)
Didecyldimethylammonium chloride (DDAC-C10)
Didodecyldimethylammonium chloride (DDAC-C12)
Dieldrin, sum Dieldrin
Aldrin
Disulfoton, sum Disulfoton
Disulfoton-sulfoxide
Disulfoton-sulfon
Endosulfan, sum Endosulfan, alpha-
Endosulfan, beta-
Endosulfan-sulfat
Fenamiphos, sum Fenamiphos
Fenamiphos-sulfoxide
Fenamiphos-sulfon
Fenthion, sum Fenthion
Fenthion-sulfoxide
Fenthion-sulfon
Fenthion-oxon
Fenthion-oxon-sulfoxide
Fenthion-oxon-sulfon
Fipronil, sum Fipronil
Fipronil-sulfon
Flonicamid, sum Flonicamid
TFNG
TFNA
Fosetyl, sum Fosetyl
Phosphonic Acid
Glufosinate, sum Glufosinate
MPP
N-Acetyl-Glufosinate (NAG)
Heptachlor, sum Heptachlor
Heptachlorepoxid
Malathion, sum Malathion
Malaoxon
Methiocarb, sum Methiocarb
Methiocarb-sulfoxide
Methiocarb-sulfon
Milbemectin Milbemectin A3
Milbemectin A4
Oxydemeton-S-methyl, sum Oxydemeton-methyl
Demeton-S-methyl-sulfon
Parathion-methyl ,sum Parathion-methyl
Paraoxon-methyl
Phorat, sum Phorate
Phorate-sulfon
Phorate-oxon
Phorate-oxon-sulfon
Phosmet, sum Phosmet
Phosmet-oxon
Prochloraz, total Prochloraz
2,4,6-Trichlorphenol
BTS 44595
BTS 44596
BTS 9608
BTS 40348
Pyrethrum, sum Pyrethrin I
Pyrethrin II
Jasmolin I
Jasmolin II
Cinerin I
Cinerin II
Pyridate, sum Pyridate
Pyridafol
Quintozen, sum Quintozen
Pentachloranilin
Sethoxydim, total Sethoxydim
Clethodim
Spirotetramat, sum Spirotetramate,
Spirotetramate-Enol,
Spirotetramate, Ketohydroxy
Spirotetramate, Monohydroxy
Spirotetramate-Enol-Glycoside
Tolylfluanid, sum Tolylfluanid
DMST
Triflumizole Triflumizole
FM-6-1

 

Translated by: Catherine Leiblein

 

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Report published on 15.04.2019 08:37:04