Residues and Contaminants in Fresh Fruit from Conventional Cultivation, 2016

Report from a day in the lab

Ellen Scherbaum, Kathi Hacker, Alexander Lemke

 

In 2016 a total of 853 samples of fresh fruit from conventional culti-vation were analyzed by CVUA Stuttgart for residues of over 700 different pesticides, pesticide metabolites, and contaminants. In all, 820 of these samples (96 %) contained residues from a total of 188 different pesticide substances (compared to 179 substances in 2015; 192 in 2014; 193 in 2013; 197 in 2012; and 184 in 2011). A total of 5,481 residues were found (according to the legal definition; see also Annex 4). There were exceedances of the maximum resi-due level (MRL) in 59 fruit samples (6.9 %). The rate of violations was similar to that of the previous year (5.2 % in 2015; 11 % in 2014; 4.8 % in 2013; 4.5 % in 2012; and 3.6 % in 2011). The rate of ex-ceedances for chlorate lay at 2.1 % of the samples (1.6 % in 2015; 6.9 % in 2014), whereby eight of these samples (0.9 %) were only slightly over the limit (< 0.02 mg/kg). Fortunately, the rate from 2015 remained steady, and is significantly lower than that for vegetables.

 

Schmuckelement.

Expansion of the investigative spectrum for all samples:

The QuPPe-method (see also http://quppe.eu), was again used in 2016 to routinely investigate all samples for very polar substances that couldn’t be detected with the QuEChERS multi-residue method. Typical agents in this group include the fungicides fosetyl and phosphonic acid, which are often used in fruit cultivation, the herbicide chlorate, and the contaminant perchlorate (see Info Boxes on chlorate, phosphonic acid, and perchlorate).

 

Detailed results:

Table 1 gives an overview of all 853 fruit samples by country of origin.

 

Table 1 Pesticide residues in fruit samples from conventional cultivation, differentiated by country of origin (CVUAS, 2016)
Fresh Fruit
Domestic Samples
Other EU Countries
Third Countries
Unknown Origin
Total Samples
No. of Samples
291
277
269
16
853
With residues
280 (96 %)
266 (96 %)
259 (96 %)
15 (94 %)
820 (96 %)
Exceedances of MRL
11 (3.8 %)
15 (5.4 %)
31 (12 %)
2
59 (6.9 %)
Ave. quantity of pesticide (mg/kg)
3.1
2.7
3.0
1.6
2.9
Ave. quantity of pesticide, excluding fosetyl (sum) (mg/kg)*
0.37
0.72
0.82
0.53
0.63
Ave. quantity of pesticide, excluding fosetyl (sum), surface treatment agents, and bromide (mg/kg)*
0.37
0.46
0.47
0.37
0.43
Ave. no. substances per sample
7.1
6.1
6.1
5.3
6.4

* The comparatively high levels of fosetyl (sum), bromide and surface treatment agents (thia-bendazole, imazalil and o-phenylphenol) strongly affect the average quantity of pesticides per sample. Therefore, the average amount is also provided without these substances.

 

The samples came from 39 different countries, with most originating in Germany (291), Spain (169), Italy (80), South Africa (47), Turkey (43) and Brazil (25). The highest rates of MRL exceedances were in samples from Turkey (19 %) and Brazil (20 %).

 

In 2016, almost all of fruit samples (96 % of 820) contained residues. According to the official definition of residues (see Annex 4), 188 different pesticide substances were detected; when all metabolites and contaminants are included, this comprises 247 individual substances. An average of 6.4 different substances was detected per sample. Excluding fosetyl (sum), bromide, and the surface treatment agents thiabendazole, imazalil and ortho-phenylphenol, which are often found on the peel of citrus fruits and to some extent on stone and exotic fruits, the average amount of pesticide residues was 0.43 mg/kg.

 

Table 2 provides an overview of the analytical results for the differ-ent fruit categories.

 

Table 2 Residues in fruit samples from conventional cultivation, differentiated by type of fruit (CVUAS, 2016)
Type of Fruit
No. of Samples
Samples with Residues
Samples with Multiple Residues
Samples > MRL
No. Findings
> MRL
Substances exceeding the MRL*
Berry
261
257 (99 %)
251 (96 %)
19 (7.3 %)
23
Fosetyl, sum (5x); Chlorate (4x); Spinosad (2x); Ametoctradin (2x); Vinclozolin; Dimethoate, sum; Chlorpropham; Fenazaquin; Captan; Folpet; Procymidone; Tebufenozide; Methoxyfenozide; Trimethylsulfonium cation
Pome fruit
150
148 (99 %)
146 (97 %)
2 (1.3 %)
2
Chlormequat; Diphenylamine
Stone fruit
161
159 (99 %)
155 (96 %)
13 (8.1 %)
15
Chlorate (6x); Fosetyl, sum (5x); Acetamiprid; Dimethoate, sum; Carbendazim, sum; Procymidone
Citrus fuit
106
106 (100 %)
105 (99 %)
6 (5.7 %)
6
Chlorate (4x); Dicloran; Lambda-Cyhalothrin
Exotic fruit
175
150 (86 %)
113 (65 %)
19 (11 %)
22
Fosetyl, sum (7x); Chlorate (4x); Acetamiprid (2x); Prochloraz, sum (2x); Ethephon; Chlorpyrifos; Diuron; Difenoconazole; Flutriafol; Cyfluthrin; Cyprodinil
Total
853
820 (96 %)
770 (90 %)
59 (6.9 %)
 
 

* Individual samples contained more than one substance exceeding the MRL

 

Presentation of Results for Specific Types of Fruit

Berries contained an average of 7.5 different substances and 0.6 mg pesticide per kg (average quantity of pesticide excluding fosetyl (sum), surface treatment agents and bromide) (Table 3). These sensitive fruits are vulnerable to mold, especially in damp weather.

Two samples of currants from Germany were especially notable in 2016. One sample contained four substances (captan, difenoconazole, folpet, and tebufenozide), and the other, seven (dimethoate (sum), fenazaquin, folpet, procymidone, tebufenozide, triflumuron, and vinclozolin), that were higher than the MRL; a total of 19 and 25 different substances were detected in the samples, respectively. Both samples came from the same producer. Fortunately, such highly contaminated samples are absolute exceptions.

 

Table 3 Residues in berries from conventional cultivation (CVUAS, 2016)
Type of Fruit
No. of Samples
Samples with Residues
Samples with Multiple Residues
Samples > MRL
Substances exceeding the MRL**
Blackberry
4*
4
4
 
 
Strawberry
78
77 (99 %)
76 (97 %)
6 (7.7 %)
Chlorate (3x); Spinosad (2x); Chlorpropham
Blueberry
18
17 (94 %)
16 (89 %)
3 (17 %)
Fosetyl, sum (3x)
Raspberry
15
15 (100 %)
15 (100 %)
 
 
Currant
34
32 (94 %)
31 (91 %)
4 (12 %)
Ametoctradin; Dimethoate, sum; Fenazaquin; Fosetyl, sum; Methoxyfenozide; Procymidone; Tebufenozide; Vinclozolin
Jostaberry
1
1
1
 
 
Cranberry
2
2
0
 
 
Gooseberry
10
10 (100 %)
10 (100 %)
2 (20 %)
Ametoctradin; Fosetyl, sum
Table Grape
99
99 (100 %)
98 (99 %)
4 (4 %)
Captan; Chlorate; Folpet; Trimethylsulfonium cation
Total Berries
261
257 (99 %)
251 (96 %)
19 (7.3 %)
 

MRL = Maximum Residue Level
* For sample sizes under 5 no percentage is given
** Individual samples contained more than one substance exceeding the MRL

 

Pome fruits contained an average of 8.3 different substances and 0.31 mg pesticide per kg (average quantity of pesticide excluding fosetyl (sum), surface treatment agents and bromide). The number of different substances per sample was slightly higher than with berries; the amount of residues, however, was only half as high (see Table 4).

 

Table 4 Residues in stone fruits from conventional cultivation (CVUAS, 2016)
Type of Fruit
No. of Samples
Samples with Multiple Residues
Samples with Multiple Residues
Samples > MRL
Substances exceeding the MRL
Apple
95
93 (98 %)
93 (98 %)
1 (1.1 %)
Diphenylamine
Pear
54
54 (100 %)
52 (96 %)
1 (1.9 %)
Chlormequat
Quince
1*
1
1
 
 
Sum Stone Fruits
150
148 (99 %)
146 (97 %)
2 (1.3%)
 

MRL = Maximum Residue Level
* For sample sizes under 5 no percentage is given

 

One sample of Turkish pears contained chlorpyrifos in the amount of 0.20 mg/kg. The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) published new toxicological reference values in April 2014, deriving an acute reference dose (ARfD) for Chlorpyrifos of 0.005 mg/kg bodyweight [4]. Applying EFSA’s EU-based PRIMo-Model for young children, consumption of the above-mentioned pear sample with its chlorpyrifos residues of 0.20 mg/kg would mean an intake amount of 0.0182 mg/kg bodyweight (variability factor 7). That would exhaust the ARfD by 364 %, although the MRL of 0.5 mg/kg was not exceeded. As a result, the sample was judged to be unsafe.

 

Info box

Acute Reference Dose (ARfD)

For the evaluation of pesticides that have a high, acute toxicity and that can cause health damage after just a single or short-term intake, the Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) value is appropriate to only a limited extent.  Since the ADI is derived from long-term studies, it is possibly inadequate as a measure of acute risk from residues in food. Therefore, in addition to the ADI value, a further exposure limit has been established, the so-called acute reference dose (ARfD). The World Health Organization defined the ARfD as the amount of a substance one can consume over the period of one day or in one meal without resulting in any discernible health risk. Other than for the ADI, the ARfD value is not determined for every pesticide, but only for such substances that, when taken in sufficient quantities, could cause damage to one’s health even after just one exposure.

 

EU - Pesticides database

EFSA calculation model Pesticide Residue Intake Model “PRIMo” - rev.2_0

 

Stone fruits contained an average of 6.3 different substances and 0.26 mg pesticide per kg (average quantity of pesticide excluding fosetyl (sum), surface treatment agents and bromide); see Table 5.

 

Table 5 Residues in stone fruits from conventional cultivation (CVUAS, 2016)
Type of Fruit No. of Samples Samples with Residues Rückständen Samples with Multiple Residues Samples > MRL Substances exceeding the MRL**
Apricot 25 24 (96 %) 24 (96 %) 2 (8 %) Carbendazim, sum; Fosetyl, sum
Avocado 3 3* 2    
Mirabelle 3 3 3    
Nectarine 20 20 (100 %) 20 (100 %) 1 (5 %) Fosetyl, sum
Peach 17 17 (100 %) 17 (100 %) 1 (5.9 %) Chlorate
Plim 61 60 (98 %) 58 (95 %) 3 (4.9 %) Acetamiprid; Chlorate; Fosetyl, sum
Sweet Cherry 32 32 (100 %) 31 (97 %) 6 (19 %) Chlorate (4x); Fosetyl, sum (2x); Dimethoate, sum; Procymidone
TOTAL
Stone Fruits
161 159 (99 %) 155 (96 %) 13 (8.1 %)  

MRL = Maximum Residue Level;

*For sample sizes under 5 no percentage is given

**Individual samples contained more than one substance exceeding the MRL

 

One sample of German cherries contained dimethoate (sum of omethoate and dimethoate), in the amount of 0.82 mg/kg sample. The MRL is 0.2 mg/kg. Applying EFSA’s EU-based PRIMo-Model for young children exhausts the ARfD by 276 % [3]. This sample was also determined to be unsafe.

 

Citrus fruit contained an average of seven different substances and 0.48 mg pesticide per kg (average quantity of pesticide excluding fosetyl (sum), surface treatment agents and bromide); see Table 6.

 

Table 6 Residues in citrus fruits from conventional cultivation (CVUAS, 2016)
Type of Fruit
No. of Samples
Samples with Residues
Samples with Multiple Residues
Samples > MRL
Substances exceeding the MRL
Clementine
18
18 (100 %)
18 (100 %)
 
 
Grapefruit
24
24 (100 %)
24 (100 %)
1 (4.2 %)
Chlorate
Kumquat
2
2*
1
1 (50 %)
Lambda-Cyhalothrin
Lime
13
13 (100 %)
13 (100 %)
2 (15 %)
Chlorate (2x)
Mandarine
1
1
1
 
 
Orange
14
14 (100 %)
14 (100 %)
 
 
Pomelo
8
8 (100 %)
8 (100 %)
1 (13 %)
Dicloran
Satsumas
3
3
3
 
 
Ugli
1
1
1
 
 
Lemon
22
22 (100 %)
22 (100 %)
1 (4.5 %)
Chlorate
Total
Citrus Fruits
106
106 (100 %)
105 (99 %)
6 (5.7 %)
 

MRL = Maximum Residue Level;
* For sample sizes under 5 no percentage is given

 

Chlorate was the culprit in four cases of MRL exceedances in citrus fruits. A sample of kumquat from Spain contained the insecticide lambda-cyhalothrin in excessive amounts, and one sample of Chinese pomelo contained too much dicloran. According to reports, the fungicide dicloran is used in China to protect the peel of fruits from damage and spots.

 

Exotic Fruits had the highest rate of violations of all the fruit groups, at 11 %. Of the 175 analyzed samples, 19 contained residues above the MRL in 2016. Pomegranates from Turkey and passionfruit from Colombia were especially conspicuous. The MRL for fosetyl (sum) in exotic fruits is comparatively low, at 2.0 mg/kg; a total of seven samples were above this limit (see Table 7).

 

Table 7 Residues in exotic fruits from conventional cultivation (CVUAS, 2016)
Type of Fruit
No. of Sample
Samples with Residues
Samples with Multiple Residues
Samples > MRL
Substances exceeding the MRL**
Pineapple
17
17 (100 %)
17 (100 %)
4 (15 %)
Chlorate; Chlorpyrifos; Diuron; Prochloraz, sum
Bananea
6
6 (100 %)
5 (83 %)
 
 
Cherimoya
1*
1
0
 
 
Date
1
1
0
 
 
Fig
11
5 (46 %)
0
 
 
Pomegranate
17
17 (100 %)
15 (88 %)
5 (29 %)
Acetamiprid (2x); Fosetyl, sum (2x); Cyfluthrin; Cyprodinil; Prochloraz, sum
Khaki
20
14 (70 %)
9 (45 %)
2 (10 %)
Chlorate (2x)
Prickly Pear
2
1
0
 
 
Cape gooseberry
1
1
1
 
 
Carambola
3
3
3
 
 
Kiwi
27
26 (96 %)
19 (70 %)
 
 
Litchi
4
1
1
 
 
Mango
24
22 (92 %)
17 (71 %)
3 (13 %)
Ethephon; Flutriafol; Fosetyl, sum
Maracuja
6
6 (100 %)
6 (100 %)
4 (67 %)
Fosetyl, sum (3x); Chlorate; Difenoconazole
Nashi pear
2
2
2
 
 
Papaya
7
6 (86 %)
5 (71 %)
1 (14 %)
Fosetyl, Summe
Pitahaya
1
1
1
 
 
Rhubarb
15
10 (67 %)
2 (13 %)
 
 
Total
Exotic fruit
175
150 (86 %)
113 (65 %)
19 (11 %)
 

MRL = Maximum Residue Level;
* For sample sizes under 5 no percentage is given
** Individual samples contained more than one substance exceeding the MRL

 

Multiple Residues

Residues from multiple pesticides were also detected in a large number of fruit samples in 2016: 770 samples (90 %) had multiple residues (89 % in 2015; 95 % in 2014; 85 % in 2013; 83 % in 2012). Illustration 1 depicts the multiple residues in various types of fruit in 2016.

The residue findings are strongly dependent on the type of sample and their country of origin. Since the particular focus and risk-oriented questions are different each year, the results from one year cannot be seen as representative of the general situation.

 

Illustration1

Illustration 1: Multiple residues in various types of fruit (CVUAS, 2016)

 

Nevertheless, certain trends can be noted, especially when the residue situation is observed over a period of several years. Illustrations 2 and 3 show a comparison of 5 years.

The number of analyzed substances has been continually adjusted and expanded over the past five years. While an average of about 600 pesticides were analyzed in 2012, this number rose to 648 substances in 2016 (pursuant to the legal residue definitions; see Annex 4).

 

Illustration 2

Illustration 2: Average number of different pesticide substances per sample in various types of fruit (CVUAS 2012-2016; residue definitions according to legal stand in 2016)

 

Expansion of the analyses and a reduction in the residue amounts as a result of post-harvest treatments (washing, waxing, etc.) have had an opposite effect on the number of pesticides that are detectable. As Illustration 2 shows, a slight increase in the number of detectable substances can be observed for the years 2012 to 2016.

Exotic fruit has the best record, with an average of 2.8 substances per sample over the five years. Stone fruits lie in the middle, at 5.7 per sample. Berries and citrus fruits contained an average of 6.7 and 6.5 respectively, and pome fruit had the highest average, at 7.3 substances per sample over the years, increasing from 6.1 in 2012 to 8.3 in 2016. When making comparisons of the number of pesticide substances used, one must consider that the individual cultures are grown in different climate zones, and are thus exposed to different degrees of pressure from pests. It is therefore necessary to take individual, often different measures of plant protection.

 

Illustration 3

Illustration 3: Average amount of pesticide residues (excluding surface treatment agents, bromide and fosetyl (sum)) in different types of fruit (CVUAS 2012-2016; residue definitions are according to legal stand in 2016)

 

Illustration 3 shows the average amount of pesticide residues (excluding surface treatment agents, bromide and fosetyl (sum)). The exotic fruits have the best record over the five years here as well, with an average of 0.25 mg/kg of fruit. This year, however, there was a significant jump, mainly as a result of four extremely high findings of prochloraz in a pomegranate from Turkey, a mango from Peru and two pineapples from Ghana, where this fungicide is assumed to be used in post-harvest treatments. Without these four findings the average amount of pesticide in exotic fruit for 2016 would be 0.31 mg/kg. With an average of 0.60 mg/kg, the berries were again the fruit with the highest amount of pesticides in 2016, compared to the other fruit groups.

 

Substances with special features:

1. Chlorate

The presence of chlorate residues in plant-based foods can have causes other than its application as an herbicide (see Info Box). In fruit, however, chlorate findings play a very minor role in comparison to vegetables (see Illustration 4).

 

Illustration 4

Illustration 4: Chlorate findings above the MRL (> 0.01 mg/kg): a comparison of conven-tional fruit and vegetables

 

Info Box

Chlorate

Chlorates are effective as both herbicides and biocides. Since 2008, however, chlorate is no longer authorized for use as a pesticide in the EU. Sodium chlorate may also no longer be used in biocide products.
The definition for „pesticide residues“ in Regulation (EC) Nr. 396/2005 also encompasses residues from pesticidal substances in food (including substances no longer authorized) that have pathways other than from the use of plant protectors (so-called dual-use substances). Chlorate, as a substance that is no longer authorized, is thereby covered by the EU-wide valid default MRL of 0.01 mg/kg, in accordance with Reg. (EC) Nr. 396/2005. The presence of chlorate in food can result not only from its use as a pesticide, but also due to environmental pollution (contaminated rain- or irrigation water and soil), or as a residual of food production techniques, including methods used in farming, processing, preparation, or treatment.  The application of biocides, from which chlorate can result, is another possible source of contamination. In general, chlorate can be formed as a by-product of the disinfection of drinking/ industrial water with chlorine gas, hypochlorite, or chlorine dioxide. However, no limit value for chlorate in drinking water has been established by the drinking water ordinance. Chlorate inhibits, reversibly, the intake of iodine into the thyroid gland and can cause unwanted health effects, especially in sensitive people such as children, pregnant women, or people with thyroid dysfunction. In addition to affecting thyroid function, chlorate can also damage the erythrocytes (formation of methaemoglobin, haemolysis).
The member states are carrying out a monitoring program to determine the degree of food and drinking water  contamination , in order to provide data for a toxicological evaluation by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). Specific residue MRLs will then be established based on this information.

 

Sources: Federal Institute for Risk Assessment (BfR) [1], European Commission [2]

 

2. Phosphonic Acid

The investigations into fosetyl (sum of fosetyl and phosphonic acid) were continued in 2016. Phosphonic acid residues can result from the usage of the fungicidal plant protectors fosetyl and phosphonic acid (allowed in Germany in fruit and vegetable farming, such as lettuce, cucumbers, tomatoes, strawberries, etc.), as well as from the earlier usage of plant strengtheners (so-called leaf fertilizers). With the EU-wide categorization of phosphonic acid as a fungicide, these applications are no longer possible. A legal maximum has been determined for the sum of fosetyl and phosphonic acid, as well as their salts. Fully 56 % (481 samples) of all the analyzed fruit samples were detected with phosphonic acid, calculated as fosetyl (sum) in amounts up to 86.2 mg/kg. Violations occurred in 17 samples (2 %) due to exceedances of the maximum for fosetyl, sum (see Annex 1). The average rate of pesticide per sample is strongly influenced by the comparatively high average amount of fosetyl residues. Therefore, Table 1 presents the average rates of pesticides per sample both with and without fosetyl (sum).

 

Info Box

Phosphonic Acid and Fosetyl

Both fosetyl and phosphonic acid are fungicides that are permitted for use in the EU, and fall under the applications area of Reg. (EC) No. 396/2005, regardless of their path of entry.

In addition to the use of a fungicide, another feasible means of exposure could have been via leaf fertilizers that contained phosphonates (salts of phosphonic acid). The “new” categorization of phosphonic acids as a fungicide precludes this application, however. There are some indications that plants retain the phosphonic acids, and only eliminate them over a period of some years.

 

In Germany the only fruits for which the use of fosetyl and phosphonic acids (as phosphonates) is permitted are strawberries, blackberries and grapes. An evaluation of the German-grown fruit samples from 2014 to 2016 shows no reduction in the amounts detected, not even in apples, for which no authorization exists.

 

Illustration 5

Illustration 5: Phosphonic acid in samples from Germany; average amount from all ana-lyzed samples

 

As Illustration 5 also shows, the amount of phosphonic acid used in table grapes was much greater in 2016, as the wet weather necessitated special protection from fungal diseases.

 

3. Perchlorate

Perchlorates are the salts of perchloric acid. They are generally soluble in water, and exist permanently in the environment. Their occurrence is either anthropogenic (caused by humans) or natural, existing in mineral deposits. Perchlorate is also formed as a result of oxidative processes in the atmosphere, and deposits itself onto dust particles. The industrial use of perchlorates is extensive and diverse: they are used in the metal processing industry, in paper finishing, as a diuretic, as an oxidant, as well as an explosive and incendiary device. A further mode of entry could be the use of Chile saltpeter as fertilizer. This fertilizer is extracted mainly from natural deposits found in the Atacama Desert. Perchlorate is concentrated in such dry areas because it can’t get into the water cycle where it could be slowly degraded by microorganisms [5]. In the European Union perchlorates are currently neither authorized for use as a plant protectant nor as a biocide. Perchlorate findings, therefore, fall under the regulations for contaminants, which contain a general minimization imperative for foreign substances in food, as a preventative measure for protection of consumers [6].

Approximately six to eight percent of all conventional fruit samples (2,732 samples were analyzed from 2013 to 2016) contained perchlorate, albeit in very small concentrations. Only 0.3 % of the samples from 2016 had amounts greater than 0.1 mg/kg: one sample of cherries from Turkey contained 0.98 mg/kg, a grapefruit sample from Spain had 0.19 mg/kg, and a sample of table grapes from Chile had 0.12 mg/kg perchlorate.

»More information

 

Illustration 6

Illustration 6: Percentage of conventional fruit samples contaminated with perchlorate, by amount of perchlorate (CVUAS 2013–2016)

 

Unauthorized Use of Pesticides

Samples coming from Germany are also tested as to whether the detected substances are authorized both for use in general, and for the specific culture. The most frequent discrepancies were in currants (7 samples) and apples (6 samples). One sample of currants was detected with 8 unauthorized substances, including procymidone, triflumuron, and vinclozolin, which are banned for all cultures.

Werden die Höchstmengen eingehalten, so sind diese Waren verkehrsfähig. Der Sachverhalt wird jedoch von den für den Pflanzenschutz zuständigen Stellen weiter verfolgt.

If the MRLs are adhered to, these goods are marketable. The situation will be followed, nevertheless, by those responsible for monitoring plant protection measures. Findings of fosetyl, sum, (including phosphonic acid) were an issue last year, as this substance is only permitted for use in strawberries, blackberries and grapes, but was also detected in other types of fruit. In 2016 fosetyl, sum, was detected in 116 samples from Germany for which no authorization has been given (see Table 8).

 

Table 8: Evidence of fosetyl, sum, in fruit samples from Germany, for which the substance phosphonic acid and/or fosetyl are not authorized (CVUAS, 2016)
Type of Fruit No. of Detections
Raspberry 8
Currant 16
Gooseberry 6
Blueberry 4
Apple 57
Pear 12
Apricot 1
Plum 4
Sweet Cherry 7
Rhubarb 1

 

These findings from 2016 were not yet judged as „unauthorized applications“, because these substances remain in the plants and could be the result of an earlier application of „leaf fertilizer“, etc. (see also Info Box).

Residues from unauthorized substances detected in fruit samples from Germany are presented in Table 9.

 

Table 9: Residues of unauthorized substances in conventional fruit from Germany (CVUAS, 2016)
Type of Fruit
No. of Samples from Germany
Samples w/ Unauthorized Substances
Unauthorized Substances*
Berry
126
12 (10 %)
Difenoconazole (4x); Folpet (4x); Captan (3x); Tebufenozide (2x); Ametoctradin (2x); Vinclozolin; Dimethoate, sum; Fenoxycarb; Triflumuron; Cyflufenamid; Dithianon; Fenazaquin; Procymidon; Methoxyfenozide; Abamectin, sum; Fluopyram
Pome fruit
96
6 (6 %)
Folpet (5x); Fenoxycarb
Stone fruit
55
4 (7 %)
Captan (3x); Procymidone
Citrus fruit
0
0
 
Exotic fruit**
14
0
 
Sum
291
22 (7.6 %)
 

* Individual samples contained more than one unauthorized substance
** Rhubarb included in exotic fruit

 

Info Box

Indication Authorization (§ 12 (1) Plant Protection Law)

The indication authorization has been valid for all pesticides since 1 July, 2001. It states that the substances in question are authorized, but may be utilized only within the scope of application stipulated in the Federal Office of Consumer Protection and Food Safety‘s (BVL) authorization database (Food Safety‘s (BVL) authorization database).
Furthermore, the responsible authorities of the German states can, in accordance with § 22 of the plant protection law, determine certain conditions under which permission can be given in individual cases for the use of authorized pesticides in other areas. The Landwirtschaftliches Technologiezentrum Augustenberg (Agricultural Technology Center Augustenberg) is the responsible authority In Baden-Württemberg (http://www.ltz-bw.de/pb/,Lde/Startseite/Arbeitsfelder/Zulassungen+_+Genehmigungen). This permission is only valid for the applicant operator and the specified cultivated area.

 

Annex 1 lists the MRL exceedances in conventionally produced fresh fruits; Annexes 2 and 3 show the frequency distribution of the detected substances.

 

Photo credits:

CVUA Stuttgart, pesticide laboratory

 

References:

[1] Vorschläge des BfR zur gesundheitlichen Bewertung von Chloratrückständen in Lebensmitteln vom 12.05.2015

[2] Entscheidung der Kommission vom 10. November 2008 über die Nichtaufnahme von Chlorat in Anhang I der RL 91/414/EWG des Rates und die Aufhebung der Zulassungen für Pflanzenschutzmittel mit diesem Stoff (ABl. L307/7 vom 18.11.2008)

[3] Conclusion on the peer review of the pesticide risk assessment of confirmatory data submitted for the active substance dimethoate: EFSA Journal 2013;11(7):3233

[4] Conclusion on the peer review of the pesticide human health risk assessment of the active substance chlorpyrifos, EFSA Journal 2014;12(4):3640

[5] Bericht des Umweltbundesamtes vom 18.09.2012 über das Vorkommen und die Verwendung von Perchloraten sowie deren wesentliche Eintragspfade in Lebensmittel

[6] Statement as regards the presence of perchlorate in food on 10 March 2015 (updated 23 June 2015)

 

Annexes

Annex 1: Substances with MRL exceedances, by type of fruit and country of origin (CVUAS, 2016)
Substances   HöchstmengenüberschreitungFruits with MRL Exceedancesen bei  
Acetamiprid

Pomegranate (Turkey, not specified); Plum (Turkey)

Ametoctradin

Gooseberry (Germany); Currant (Germany)

Captan

Grapes (Germany)

Carbendazim, sum

Apricot (Turkey)

Chlorate

Strawberry (Spain 2x, Italy); Grapefruit (USA); Plum (Chile); Passion fruit (South Africa); Cherry (Turkey 2x, Italy 2x); Kaki (South Africa, not specified); Peach (Spain); Pineapple (Costa Rica); Lemon (Spain); Lime (Brazil 2x); Grapes (Brazil)

Chlormequat

Pear (Spain)

Chlorpropham

Strawberry (Italy)

Chlorpyrifos

Pineapple (Costa Rica)

Cyfluthrin

Pomegranate (not specified)

Cyprodinil

Pomegranate (South Africa)

Dicloran

Pomelo (China)

Difenoconazole

Passion fruit (Colombia)

Dimethoate, sum

Currant (Germany); Cherry (Germany)

Diphenylamine

Apple (Greece)

Diuron

Pineapple (Ghana)

Ethephon

Mango (Peru)

Fenazaquin

Currant (Germany)

Flutriafol

Mango (Brazil)

Folpet

Grapes (Germany)

Fosetyl, sum

Pomegranate (Turkey 2x); Passion fruit (Colombia 2x, South Africa); Blueberry (Morocco, Germany, Argentina); Nectarine (Chile); Papaya (Brazil); Cherry (Turkey, Italy); Apricot (Italy); Currant (Germany); Gooseberry (Germany); Plum (Germany); Mango (Spain)

lambda-Cyhalothrin

Kumquat (Spain)

Methoxyfenozide

Currant (Germany)

Prochloraz, sum

Pomegranate (Turkey); Pineapple (Ghana)

Procymidone

Currant (Germany); Cherry (Germany)

Spinosad

Strawberry (Spain, Italy)

Tebufenozide

Currant (Germany)

Trimethylsulfonium cation

Grapes (Chile)

Vinclozolin

Currant (Germany)

 

Annex 2: Frequency of detection of the most important substances* for fresh fruit, by type of fruit, as percentage all analyzed samples (CVUAS, 2016nlage 2: Nachweishäufigkeit der wichtigsten Wirkstoffe* für Frischobst, sowie aufgeschlüsselt nach Obstart, in Prozent der untersuchten Proben (CVUAS 2016)

 

Illustration 7

 

 

Illustration 8

*Corresponding to the valid residue definition; see Annex 4

A = Acaricide; B = Bactericide; F = Fungicide; H = Herbicide; I = Insecticide; M = Metabolite; G = Growth Regulator

 

Annex 3: Frequency of residue findings of plant protection substances in fresh fruit from conventional production (CVUAS, 2016)
Pesticides and Metabolites
Number of Findings
mg/kg
< 0.01
< 0.05
< 0.2
< 1
< 5
< 20
≥ 20
Max.
Fosetyl, sum
481
0
1
69
135
230
28
18
86.2
Fludioxonil
256
94
48
51
48
14
1
0
14.2
Cyprodinil
238
112
44
48
30
4
0
0
1.2
Boscalid
212
82
62
38
27
3
0
0
1.8
Trifloxystrobin
177
79
69
23
5
1
0
0
1.5
Captan
140
30
50
45
13
2
0
0
1.7
Myclobutanil
139
85
41
12
1
0
0
0
0.2
Chlorantraniliprole
131
103
27
1
0
0
0
0
0.09
Pyraclostrobin
126
69
40
14
3
0
0
0
0.3
Tebuconazole
121
68
29
18
6
0
0
0
0.68
Chlorpyrifos
118
79
27
8
4
0
0
0
0.3
Fluopyram
111
51
36
20
3
1
0
0
1.3
Imazalil
105
14
7
13
25
46
0
0
4.5
Acetamiprid
103
50
35
18
0
0
0
0
0.15
Dithianon
103
17
43
34
8
1
0
0
1.2
Pyrimethanil
103
45
16
10
21
11
0
0
5.2
Imidacloprid
99
65
29
2
3
0
0
0
0.45
Thiacloprid
99
58
31
9
1
0
0
0
0.36
Pirimicarb, sum
98
55
28
15
0
0
0
0
0.18
Cyprodinil metabolite CGA 304075
93
56
20
14
3
0
0
0
0.24
Fenhexamid
89
24
17
21
22
5
0
0
4.1
Difenoconazole
86
62
18
5
1
0
0
0
0.1
Spinosad
82
46
22
11
3
0
0
0
0.49
Penconazole
77
62
13
2
0
0
0
0
0.062
Thiabendazole
75
22
10
13
22
8
0
0
3.2
lambda-Cyhalothrin
72
42
24
6
0
0
0
0
0.095
Iprodione
71
36
11
8
11
5
0
0
2.4
Azoxystrobin
69
39
10
16
4
0
0
0
0.58
Carbendazim, sum
69
50
15
3
1
0
0
0
0.26
Spirotetramat, sum
66
26
28
10
2
0
0
0
0.33
Dodine
57
52
2
3
0
0
0
0
0.093
Dimethomorph
54
30
10
5
9
0
0
0
0.68
Acetamiprid metabolite IM-2-1
49
46
3
0
0
0
0
0
0.017
Cypermethrin
49
19
20
8
2
0
0
0
0.36
Indoxacarb
47
37
8
2
0
0
0
0
0.13
Prochloraz, sum
47
12
2
14
12
7
0
0
7.3
Pendimethalin
46
45
1
0
0
0
0
0
0.017
Ethephon
45
3
17
16
7
2
0
0
1.4
Methoxyfenozide
45
22
16
6
1
0
0
0
0.28
Thiabendazole-5-hydroxy
43
26
16
1
0
0
0
0
0.092
Deltamethrin
42
29
13
0
0
0
0
0
0.04
Folpet
42
24
8
8
2
0
0
0
0.43
Pyriproxyfen
42
16
20
6
0
0
0
0
0.11
Quinoxyfen
38
17
11
10
0
0
0
0
0.18
Chlorate
37
18
15
4
0
0
0
0
0.12
Metrafenone
37
17
4
6
8
2
0
0
2
Chlorpyrifos-methyl
36
20
10
5
1
0
0
0
0.24
Pirimicarb-desamido
34
34
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.005
Fenoxycarb
33
27
6
0
0
0
0
0
0.03
Propiconazole
33
13
6
1
8
5
0
0
2.4
Fenpyroximate
29
19
9
1
0
0
0
0
0.12
Fenbuconazole
28
13
14
1
0
0
0
0
0.1
Spirodiclofen
28
21
7
0
0
0
0
0
0.029
Tebufenozide
28
21
6
1
0
0
0
0
0.11
Dithiocarbamates
26
0
4
17
5
0
0
0
0.99
Hexythiazox
26
18
7
1
0
0
0
0
0.082
Etofenprox
25
9
6
4
6
0
0
0
0.47
Glufosinate, sum
25
5
17
3
0
0
0
0
0.18
2,4-D
24
14
1
8
1
0
0
0
0.46
Bromide
23
0
0
0
0
22
1
0
10.7
Ethephon metabolite HEPA
23
1
12
10
0
0
0
0
0.17
Flonicamid, sum
22
17
4
1
0
0
0
0
0.2
Metalaxyl (-M)
22
14
6
1
1
0
0
0
0.22
Kresoxim-methyl
21
17
4
0
0
0
0
0
0.028
Forchlorfenuron
19
19
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.004
Tetraconazole
19
9
8
2
0
0
0
0
0.18
BAC (n=8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18)
18
1
16
1
0
0
0
0
0.099
Etoxazole
18
13
5
0
0
0
0
0
0.026
Gibberellic acid
18
4
10
3
1
0
0
0
0.62
o-Phenylphenol
18
0
5
3
7
3
0
0
3.3
Buprofezin
17
7
6
4
0
0
0
0
0.19
Clothianidin
17
10
7
0
0
0
0
0
0.026
Triadimefon, sum
17
4
2
6
5
0
0
0
0.95
Trimethylsulfonium cation
17
10
6
1
0
0
0
0
0.067
Abamectin, sum
16
14
1
1
0
0
0
0
0.062
Bifenthrin
16
7
8
1
0
0
0
0
0.055
Cyproconazole
16
11
5
0
0
0
0
0
0.039
Tebufenpyrad
16
8
6
2
0
0
0
0
0.06
Boscalid metabolite M 510F01
15
9
6
0
0
0
0
0
0.022
Thiophanate-methyl
15
9
2
2
1
1
0
0
1
Ametoctradin
14
7
5
2
0
0
0
0
0.13
Phosmet, sum
14
6
6
2
0
0
0
0
0.1
Cyflufenamid
13
9
4
0
0
0
0
0
0.03
DDAC (n=8, 10, 12)
13
0
13
0
0
0
0
0
0.041
Emamectin B1a/B1b
13
12
1
0
0
0
0
0
0.012
Ethirimol
13
9
4
0
0
0
0
0
0.021
Famoxadone
13
5
4
4
0
0
0
0
0.078
Fluopicolide
13
7
2
4
0
0
0
0
0.17
Mandipropamid
13
7
3
2
1
0
0
0
0.51
Thiamethoxam
13
8
5
0
0
0
0
0
0.04
Cyazofamid
11
2
3
5
1
0
0
0
0.21
Cyfluthrin
11
7
2
2
0
0
0
0
0.15
Dimethoate, sum
11
9
1
0
1
0
0
0
0.86
Proquinazid
11
10
1
0
0
0
0
0
0.019
Spinetoram
11
11
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.006
Iprodion metabolite RP 30228
10
5
5
0
0
0
0
0
0.027
Diazinon
9
6
3
0
0
0
0
0
0.049
Novaluron
9
9
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.006
Spiroxamine
9
4
2
3
0
0
0
0
0.084
Fenpropimorph
8
8
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.009
Metalaxyl metabolite CGA 94689
8
7
1
0
0
0
0
0
0.013
Piperonyl butoxide
8
5
1
1
1
0
0
0
0.35
Pyridaben
8
5
2
1
0
0
0
0
0.056
Bupirimate
7
5
1
1
0
0
0
0
0.11
Chlormequat
7
5
1
0
1
0
0
0
0.83
Propyzamide
7
7
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.007
Cyantraniliprole
6
3
2
1
0
0
0
0
0.062
DEET
6
6
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.005
Icaridin
6
6
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.005
Paclobutrazol
6
6
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.003
Procymidone
6
4
1
0
1
0
0
0
0.5
Triclopyr
6
6
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.008
Chlorpropham
5
4
1
0
0
0
0
0
0.018
Clofentezine
5
2
1
1
1
0
0
0
0.35
Fluazinam
5
4
1
0
0
0
0
0
0.011
Methiocarb, sum
5
5
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.003
Bifenazat, sum
4
1
2
1
0
0
0
0
0.073
Chlorothalonil
4
0
3
1
0
0
0
0
0.059
Dicloran
4
3
1
0
0
0
0
0
0.021
Diflubenzuron
4
2
1
1
0
0
0
0
0.18
Fenbutatin oxide
4
1
2
0
1
0
0
0
0.2
Fenpyrazamine
4
2
0
1
1
0
0
0
0.79
Iprovalicarb
4
4
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.004
Metalaxyl metabolite CGA 108905
4
4
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.002
Pirimicarb-desamido-desmethyl
4
4
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.007
tau-Fluvalinate
4
3
1
0
0
0
0
0
0.026
Tetradifon
4
4
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.003
1-Naphthylacetic acid
3
3
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.008
Carbaryl
3
3
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.003
Dinocap, sum
3
3
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.003
Diphenylamine
3
1
1
0
1
0
0
0
0.7
Zoxamide
3
0
1
2
0
0
0
0
0.11
Flutriafol
3
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
0.068
Malathion, sum
3
1
2
0
0
0
0
0
0.028
Nicotine
3
2
1
0
0
0
0
0
0.012
Prohexadione
3
2
1
0
0
0
0
0
0.01
PTU
3
1
2
0
0
0
0
0
0.02
Pyrethrins
3
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
0.053
Spiromesifen
3
1
2
0
0
0
0
0
0.039
Triflumizole, sum
3
1
2
0
0
0
0
0
0.011
Triflumuron
3
0
2
1
0
0
0
0
0.053
Benalaxyl
2
2
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.001
Bromopropylate
2
2
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.005
Chlorfenapyr
2
2
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.004
Chloridazon-desphenyl
2
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0.01
Diuron
2
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0.028
Endosulfan, sum
2
2
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.009
Fluxapyroxad
2
2
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.005
Formetanate
2
2
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.006
Mepanipyrim
2
2
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.006
Methidathion
2
2
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.002
Pirimicarb, desmethyl-formamido
2
2
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.003
Propamocarb
2
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0.011
Vinclozolin
2
1
0
1
0
0
0
0
0.053
Naphthalene acetamide
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.001
2,4-D, sum
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0.12
Acephate
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.001
Acrinathrin
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.001
Anthraquinone
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.001
Atrazine-desethyl
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.001
Azinphos-methyl
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.001
Benthiavalicarb-isopropyl
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.003
Carbendazim metabolite, 2-Aminobenz-imidazole
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.007
Carbofuran, sum
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.002
Chlorothalonil-4-hydroxy
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.001
Cymoxanil
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.005
Cyromazine
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.005
Dichlorprop
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.002
Diflufenican
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.001
Dinotefuran
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.002
ETU
1
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0.013
Fenarimol
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.003
Fenazaquin
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0.069
Fenitrothion
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.003
Fenpropathrin
1
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0.012
Fenpropidin
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.002
Fipronil, sum
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.002
Fluazifop
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.002
Flubendiamide
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0.095
Flufenacet
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.002
Fluroxypyr
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.003
Flusilazole
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.001
Isopyrazam
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.006
Isoxaben
1
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0.012
Ivermectin
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.001
Linuron
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.003
Lufenuron
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.002
MCPA
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.001
Metalaxyl metabolite CGA 107955
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.003
Oxydemeton-S-methyl, sum
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.003
Oxyfluorfen
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.007
Parathion
1
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0.012
Pentachloroanisole
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.006
Pirimiphos-methyl
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.002
Probenazole
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.002
Profenofos
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.001
Propamocarb-N-oxide
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.007
Prosulfocarb
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.001
CGA 313124 (6-hydroxymethyl-pymetrozine)
1
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0.01
Terbutylazine-desethyl
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.001
Tolfenpyrad
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.003
Tolylfluanid, sum
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.001
Trichlorfon
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.002
Triflusulfuron-methyl
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.003

 

Annex 4: Substances and metabolites included in the residue definition are only included as the sum in the calculation (one residue)
Parameter In der Rückstandsdefinition enthalten und analytisch erfasst

Abamectin

Avermectin B1a
Avermectin B1b
8,9-Z-Avermectin B1a

Aldicarb, sum

Aldicarb
Aldicarb-sulfoxide
Aldicarb-sulfon

Amitraz, sum

Amitraz
BTS 27271

Benzalkonium chloride, sum  (BAC)

Benzyldimethyloctylammonium chloride (BAC-C8)
Benzyldimethyldecylammonium chloride (BAC-C10)
Benzyldodecyldimethylammonium chloride (BAC-C12)
Benzyldimethyltetradecylammonium chloride (BAC-C14
Benzylhexadecyldimethylammonium chloride (BAC-C16)
Benzyldimethylstearylammonium chloride (BAC-C18)

Carbofuran, sum

Carbofuran
3-Hydroxy-Carbofuran

DDT, sum

DDE, pp-
DDT, pp-
DDD, pp-
DDT, op-

Dialkyldimethylammonium chloride, sum (DDAC)

Dioctyldimethylammonium chloride (DDAC-C8)
Didecyldimethylammonium chloride (DDAC-C10)
Didodecyldimethylammonium chloride (DDAC-C12)

Dieldrin, sum

Dieldrin
Aldrin

Dimethoate, sum

Dimethoate
Omethoate

Disulfoton, sum

Disulfoton
Disulfoton-sulfoxide
Disulfoton-sulfon

Endosulfan, sum

Endosulfan, alpha-
Endosulfan, beta-
Endosulfan-sulfate

Fenamiphos, sum

Fenamiphos
Fenamiphos-sulfoxide
Fenamiphos-sulfon

Fenthion, sum

Fenthion
Fenthion-sulfoxide
Fenthion-sulfon
Fenthion-oxon
Fenthion-oxon-sulfoxide
Fenthion-oxon-sulfon

Fipronil, sum

Fipronil
Fipronil-sulfon

Flonicamid, sum

Flonicamid
TFNG
TFNA
TFNA-AM

Fosetyl, sum

Fosetyl
Phosphonic acid

Glufosinate, sum

Glufosinate
MPPA
N-Acetyl-Glufosinate

Heptachlor, sum

Heptachlor
Heptachlor epoxide

Malathion, Summe

Malathion
Malaoxon

Methiocarb, Summe

Methiocarb
Methiocarb-sulfoxide
Methiocarb-sulfon

Methomyl, Summe

Methomyl
Thiodicarb

Milbemectin

Milbemectin A3
Milbemectin A4

Oxydemeton-S-methyl, Summe

Oxydemeton-methyl
Demeton-S-methyl-sulfon

Parathion-methyl ,Summe

Parathion-methyl
Paraoxon-methyl

Phorat, Summe

Phorate
Phorate-sulfoxide*
Phorate-sulfon
Phorate-oxon
Phorate-oxon-sulfoxide*
Phorate-oxon-sulfon

Phosmet, Summe

Phosmet
Phosmet-oxon

Pirimicarb, Summe

Pirimicarb
Desmethyl-pirimicarb

Prochloraz, Gesamt

Prochloraz
2,4,6-Trichlorophenol
BTS 44595
BTS 44596
BTS 9608
BTS 40348

Pyrethrum, Summe

Pyrethrin I
Pyrethrin II
Jasmolin I
Jasmolin II
Cinerin I
Cinerin II

Pyridat, Summe

Pyridate
Pyridafol

Quintozen, Summe

Quintozene
Pentachloroanilin

Sethoxydim, Gesamt

Sethoxydim
Clethodim

Spirotetramat, Summe

Spirotetramate,
Spirotetramate-Enol,
Spirotetramate, Ketohydroxy
Spirotetramate, Monohydroxy
Spirotetramate-Enol-Glykoside

Terbufos, Summe

Terbufos
Terbufos-sulfon
Terbufos-sulfoxide

Thiamethoxam, sum

Thiamethoxam
Clothianidin

Tolylfluanid, Summe

Tolylfluanid
DMST

Triadimefon u. Triadimenol

Triadimefon
Triadimenol

Triflumizol

Triflumizol
Triflumizol Metabolit FM-6-1

 

Translator: Catherine Leiblein

 

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Report published on 27.07.2017 11:13:27