Residues and Contaminants in Fresh Vegetables from Conventional Cultivation, 2016

Report from a day in the lab

Kathi Hacker, Ellen Scherbaum, Alexander Lemke

 

In 2016 a total of 883 samples of fresh vegetables from conventional cultivation were analyzed by CVUA Stuttgart for residues of over 700 different pesticides, pesticide metabolites, and contaminants. In all, 805 of these samples (91%) contained residues from a total of 202 different pesticide substances (compared to 210 substances in 2015; 208 in 2014; and 199 in 2013). A total of 4,011 residues were found (according to the legal definition; see also Annex 4). There were exceedances of the Maximum residue level (MRL) in 143 vegetable samples (16%) - see Table 1. The rate of MRL violations was similar to that of the previous year (16% in 2015 and 2014; 4.4% in 2013; 6.4% in 2012; and 7% in 2011). This is attributable to the expansion of the investigative spectrum to include polar pesticides, as well as to the high number of MRL exceedances for the substance chlorate, at a total of 106 vegetable samples.

 

Photo Vegetables.

Expansion of the investigative spectrum

The QuPPe-method (see also http://quppe.eu), was again used in 2016 to routinely analyze all samples for very polar substances that couldn’t be detected with the QuEChERS multi-residue method. Typical agents in this group include the fungicides fosetyl and phosphonic acid, the herbicide chlorate, and perchlorate, which has been categorized as a contaminant.

 

Detailed results

Table 1 gives an overview of all vegetable samples, by country of origin.

 

Table 1 Pesticide Residues in Conventionally Produced Vegetable Samples, by Country of Origin (CVUAS, 2016)
Fresh Vegetables
German
Samples
Other EU Samples
Third Country Samples
Origin   Unknown
Total Samples
Number of samples
423
312
107
41
882
Samples w/ residues
363 (86 %)
301 (96 %)
105 (98 %)
40 (98 %)
808 (92 %)
Samples > MRL**
45 (11 %)
61 (20 %)
29 (27 %)
8 (20 %)
143 (16 %)
Average pesticide amount (mg/kg)
1.7
2.6
2.9
2.1
2.2
Ave. pesticide content excluding fosetyl (sum) (mg/kg)*
0.42
1.2
1.8
0.48
0.88
Ave. pesticide content excluding bromide and fosetyl (sum) (mg/kg)*
0.38
0.55
0.65
0.16
0.46
Ave. no. substances per sample
3.7
5.3
5.1
5.8
4.5

*The comparatively high levels of fosetyl (sum) and bromide residues strongly affect the average amount of pesticides per sample. Therefore, the average amount per sample is also provided without fosetyl (sum) and bromide.

** MRL = Maximum residue level

 

The samples came from 35 different countries, with most originating in Germany (423), Spain (105), Italy (96), the Netherlands (55), and Turkey (21). The highest rates of MRL exceedances were in samples from Belgium (30%), Turkey (24%), and Spain (23%). When comparing the number of pesticide substances used, one must consider that the individual cultures are grown in different climate zones, and are thus burdened to different degrees by pests. It is therefore necessary to take individual, often different measures of plant protection. An average of 4.5 different substances was detected per sample, although the local samples scored better, at 3.7 substances. Excluding fosetyl (sum) and bromide, the average amount of pesticide residues overall was 0.46 mg/kg and, for the German-grown samples, 0.38 mg/kg. Tables 2 to 6 provide an overview of the analytical results for the different vegetable categories. Annex 1 lists the MRL exceedances for conventionally cultivated fresh vegetables, and annexes 2 and 3 show the frequency distribution of the detected substances.

 

Table 2 Residues in Vegetable Samples from Conventional Cultivation, by Type of Vegetable (CVUAS, 2016)
Vegetable Type
 No.
Samples
Samples   w/

 

Residues
Samples w/
Multiple Residues
Samples
> MRL
No
Findings > MRL
Substances > MRL**
Leafy
vegetables
343
326 (95 %)
295 (86 %)
63 (18 %)
74
Chlorate (49x); Fosetyl, sum (3x); Dithiocarbamates (2x); Pyraclostrobin (2x); Nicotine (2x); Dikegulac; Chlorpyrifos; Sulfotep; Chlorpyrifos-methyl; Profenofos; Acetamiprid; Methiocarb, sum; Carbofuran, sum; Fluometuron; Metobromuron; Dimethomorph; Boscalid; Formetanate; Dodine; Cypermethrin; Iprodione
Fruiting
vegetables
321
293 (91 %)
256 (80 %)
56 (17 %)
63
Chlorate (40x); 4-CPA (4x); Fosetyl, sum (3x); Chlorfenapyr (3x); Flonicamid, sum (3x); Chlorpyrifos-methyl; Ethion; Carbofuran, sum; Methomyl, sum; Diafenthiuron; Hexaconazole; Permethrin; Azoxystrobin; Metominostrobin; Emamectin B1a/B1b
Sprout vegetables
130
104 (80 %)
70 (54 %)
16 (12 %)
16
Chlorate (10x); Fosetyl, sum (4x); Fluazifop, total; Dimethomorph
Root
vegetables
87
80 (92 %)
76 (87 %)
7 (8 %)
8
Chlorate (6x); Chlorthal-dimethyl; Fosetyl, sum
Vegetable
mixtures
2
2*
2
1
1
Chlorate
TOTAL
883
805 (91 %)
699 (79 %)
143 (16 %)
 
 

MRL = Maximum residue level;

**Individual samples contained more than just one finding > MRL

 

Presentation of results for each category of vegetable

Leafy vegetables contained an average of 5.5 different substances. With a rate of 0.95 mg pesticide per kg (average, excluding bromide and fosetyl (sum)), they had the highest residue amount of all types of vegetables. In particular, many herb and lettuce samples contained numerous as well as high amounts of pesticides (see also Illustration 1). The worst case was a sample of dill from Spain, which contained 23 different substances.

 

Table 3 Residues in Leafy Vegetables from Conventional Cultivation (CVUAS, 2016)
Matrix
No. Samples
Samples w/ Residues
Samples w/ Multiple Residues
Samples > MRL
Substances > MRL**
Wild garlic 2 0 0 0  
Basil 8 8 (100%) 8 (100%) 3 Chlorate (2x); Fluometuron
Batavia lettuce 2 2* 2 1 Fosetyl, sum
Celery 6 6 (100%) 6 (100%) 4 (67%) Chlorate (4x)
Chicory 9 9 (100%) 9 (100%) 3 (33%) Chlorate (3x)
Chinese
cabbage
9 9 (100%) 7 (78%) 1 (11%) Fosetyl, sum
Dill 4 4 4 2 Chlorate (2x)
Oakleaf lettuce 14 13 (93%) 12 (86%) 2 (14%) Acetamiprid; Chlorate;
Formetanate
Iceberg lettuce 28 28 (100%) 26 (93%) 2 (7%) Carbofuran, sum; Chlorate
Endive 5 5 (100%) 4 (80%) 0  
Lambs lettuce 24 24 (100%) 24 (100%) 6 (25%) Chlorate (6x)
Frisee lettuce 1 1 1 0  
Kale 1 1 1 0  
Chervil 1 1 1 0  
Head lettuce 42 39 (93%) 37 (88%) 9 (21%) Chlorate (9x)
Coriander 8 8 (100%) 8 (100%) 5 (63%) Chlorate (5x); Chlorpyrifos; Cypermethrin; Profenofos; Sulfotep
Spring onion 16 16 (100%) 16 (100%) 1 (6%) Dithiocarbamates
Lollo 14 13 (86%) 12 (86%) 3 (21%) Chlorate (3x)
Dandelion 1 1 1 0  
Chard 4 4 4 2 Chlorate; Dithiocarbamates; Metobromuron; Nicotine
Mint 3 3 2 1 Chlorate
Pak choi 1 1 1 1 Iprodione
Parsley 20 20 (100%) 19 (95%) 3 (15%) Chlorpyrifos-methyl; Dodine; Fosetyl, sum; Pyraclostrobin
Leek 23 23 (100%) 21 (91%) 1 (43%) Chlorate; Methiocarb, sum
Radicchio 2 1 1 0  
Romaine lettuce 9 9 (100%) 9 (100%) 2 (22%) Chlorate (2x)
Brussels sprouts 15 15 (100%) 15 (100%) 0  
Rosemary 3 3 2 2 Boscalid; Chlorate; Dimethomorph; Pyraclostrobin
Red cabbage 6 5 (83%) 3 (50%) 0  
Rucola 8 8 (100%) 8 (100%) 3 (38%) Chlorate (3x)
Chives 9 7 (77%) 6 (67%) 0  
Spinach 14 12 (86%) 9 (64%) 4 (33%) Chlorate (3x); Nicotine
Thyme 1 1 1 0  
White cabbage 17 13 (76%) 3 (18%) 0  
Savoy cabbage 12 12 (100%) 11 (92%) 1 (8%) Dikegulac
Lemon grass 1 1 1 1 Chlorate
TOTAL 343 326 (95%) 295 (86%) 63 (18%)  

MRL = Maximum residue level;
*No percentage calculated for sample sizes under 5,
**Individual samples contained more than just one compound > MRL

 

Most of the MRL exceedances among the leafy vegetables were for chlorate, although the amounts did not result from an herbicide application (see extra section on chlorate).

 

Info Box

Acute Reference Dose, ARfD

For the evaluation of plant protector substances that have a high acute toxicity and that can cause health damage after just a single or short-term intake, the Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) value is appropriate to only a limited extent.  Since the ADI is derived from long-term studies, it is possibly inadequate as a measure of acute risk from residues in food. Therefore, in addition to the ADI value, a further exposure limit has been established, the so-called acute reference dose (ARfD). The World Health Organization defined the ARfD as the amount of a substance one can consume over the period of one day or in one meal without resulting in any discernible health risk. Other than for the ADI, the ARfD value is not determined for every pesticide, but only for such substances that, when taken in sufficient quantities, could cause damage to one’s health even after just one exposure. 

Source:

EU - Pesticides database

EFSA calculation model Pesticide Residue Intake Model “PRIMo” - rev.2_0

 

One sample of German cherries contained dimethoate (sum of omethoate and dimethoate), in the amount of 0.82 mg/kg sample. The MRL is 0.2 mg/kg. Applying EFSA’s EU-based PRIMo-Model for young children, this exhausts the ARfD by 276 % - see Info Box on acute reference dose [3]. This sample was determined to be unsafe.
One sample of iceberg lettuce from Spain contained carbofuran in an amount that exhausted the ARfD by 108%, using EFSA’s PRIMo-Model for young children. In another sample of coriander from Thailand the ARfD for chlorpyrifos based on young children was exhausted by 219%. A further Belgian leek sample exhausted the ARfD for methicarb based on young children by 331%. These three samples were determined to be unsafe and therefore not appropriate for human consumption, in accordance with Regulation (EC) 178/2002.

 

Fruiting vegetables contained an average of 4.5 different substances per sample, but only 0.14 mg pesticide residues (excluding bromide and fosetyl (sum)), which means the detected substances are often found in only small concentrations. This doesn’t necessarily mean, however, that fruiting vegetables are treated less often or with lower concentrations of pesticides than other types of vegetables during vegetation. Rather, it has become much more common to wash vegetables after the harvest, thereby removing pesticide residues. In the last few years, after-harvest treatment has become more and more automated and wide-spread.

 

Table 4 Residues in Sprouts from Conventional Cultivation (CVUAS, 2016)
Vegetable Type
No. Samples
Samples w/ Residues
Samples w/ Multiple Residues
Samples > MRL
Substances > MRL**
Aubergine
17
16 (94 %)
13 (76 %)
3 (18 %)
Chlorate (2x); Ethion
Bitter cucumber
1
1*
0
0
 
Green beans
41
37 (90 %)
33 (80 %)
7 (17 %)
Chlorate (5x); Fosetyl, sum (2x)
Chili peppers
8
8 (100 %)
7 (88 %)
5 (63 %)
Chlorate (3x); Azoxystrobin;
Carbofuran, sum; Chlorfenapyr; Diafenthiuron;

Hexaconazole; Metominostrobin

Pickled cucumbers
1
1
1
0
 
Sugarsnap peas
5
4 (80 %)
4 (80 %)
1 (20 %)
Fosetyl, sum
Bell peppers
42
37 (88 %)
34 (81 %)
3 (7 %)
Chlorate (2x); Methomyl, sum
Cucumber
31
29 (94 %)
27 (87 %)
4 (13 %)
Chlorate (3x); Chlorfenapyr
Pumpkin
7
4 (57 %)
2
0
 
Melon
37
37 (100 %)
37 (100 %)
7 (19 %)
Chlorate (6x); Chlorfenapyr;
Flonicamid, sum
Okra (Ladyfingers)
6
6 (100 %)
5 (83 %)
3 (50 %)
Chlorate; Emamectin B1a/B1b;
Flonicamid, sum; Permethrin
Chili peppers
3
3
2
1
Flonicamid, sum
Broad beans
1
0
0
0
 
Tomato
81
73 (90 %)
59 (73 %)
12 (15 %)
Chlorate (11x); Chlorpyrifos-methyl
Zucchini
40
37 (95 %)
32 (80 %)
10 (25 %)
Chlorate (7x); 4-CPA (4x)
TOTAL
321
293 (91 %)
256 (80 %)
56 (17 %)
 

MRL = Maximum residue level;
*No percentage calculated for sample sizes under 5,
**Individual samples contained more than just one compound > MRL

 

The acute reference dose (ARfD; see Info Box), based on the EFSA PRIMo-Model for young children, was exhausted by 141% by a sample of bell peppers from Morocco for the substance methomyl and by 236% by a sample of broccoli from Belgium for the substance fluazifop. These two samples were judged to be unsafe and thus not suitable for human consumption, in line with regulation (EC) 178/2002.

 

Sprout vegetables contained an average of 2.1 different substances and 0.22 mg pesticide residues per kg sample (average pesticide amount, excluding bromide and fosetyl (sum)).

 

Table 5 Residues in Sprouts from Conventional Cultivation (CVUAS, 2016)
Vegetable Type
No. Samples
Samples w/ Residues
Samples w/ Multiple Residues
Samples > MRL
Substances > MRL**
Artichoke
5
4 (80 %)
4 (80 %)
0
 

Cauliflower

14
13 (93 %)
6 (43 %)
0

 

Broccoli

21
19 (90 %)
18 (86 %)
1 (5 %)

Fluazifop, total

Fennel

11
9 (82 %)
7 (64 %)
1 (9 %)

Chlorate

Garlic

2
1*
0
0

 

Kohlrabi

26
24 (92 %)
14 (54 %)
5 (20 %)

Chlorate (4x); Dimethomorph

Soy sprouts

2
2
0
0

 

Asparagus

42
25 (60 %)
16 (38 %)
9 (21 %)

Chlorate (5x); Fosetyl, sum (4x)

Onion

7
7 (100 %)
5 (71 %)
0

 

TOTAL

130
104 (80 %)
70 (54 %)
16 (12 %)

 

MRL = Maximum residue level;
*No percentage calculated for sample sizes under 5,
**Individual samples contained more than just one compound > MRL

 

None of the sprout samples exceeded the acute reference dose for the substance detected. Therefore, no acute health risk was posed.

 

Root vegetables contained an average of 4.5 substances per sample and a comparatively low level of pesticide residues of 0.061 mg/kg sample (average pesticide amount excluding bromide and fosetyl (sum)). The detected substances were often found in only trace amounts.

 

Table 6 Residues in Root Vegetables from Conventional Cultivation (CVUAS, 2016)
Vegetable Type
No. Samples
Samples w/ Residues
Samples w/ Multiple Residues
Samples > MRL
Substances > MRL

Ginger

8
8 (100 %)
7 (88 %)
0

 

Celeriac

16
16 (100 %)
16 (100 %)
1 (6 %)

Chlorate

Rutabaga

4
2*
2
0

 

Carrot

28
28 (100 %)
28 (100 %)
2 (7 %)

Chlorate (2x)

Parsnip

2
1
1
0

 

Parsley root

3
3
3
0

 

Radish, black

14
13 (93 %)
11 (79 %)
3 (21 %)

Chlorate (3x);
Chlorthal-dimethyl

Radish

1
0
0
0

 

Beetroot

11
9 (8 2%)
8 (73 %)
1 (9 %)

Fosetyl, sum

TOTAL

87
80 (92 %)
76 (87 %)
7 (8 %)

 

MRL = Maximum residue level;
*No percentage calculated for sample sizes under 5

 

Multiple residues

Also in 2016 were a majority of the vegetable samples detected with multiple residues; 699 of the samples (79%) contained multiple residues. Illustration 1 depicts the number of pesticides found in the different types of vegetables in 2016.

 

Illustration 1: Multiple Residues in Various Types of Vegetables (CVUAS, 2016).

Illustration 1: Multiple Residues in Various Types of Vegetables (CVUAS, 2016)

 

The number of analyzed substances has been continually adjusted and expanded over the last five years.  While approximately 600 different pesticides were analyzed in 2012, the number reached 648 substances in 2016 (pursuant to the legal residue definition; see Annex 4). Expansion of the analyses and a reduction in the residue amounts as a result of after-harvest treatments (e.g. washing) have had an opposite effect on the number of pesticides that are detectable.  As Illustration 2 shows, a slight increase in the number of detectable substances can be observed for the years 2012 to 2016.

 

The residue findings are strongly dependent on the type of sample and their country of origin. Since the particular focus and risk-oriented questions are different each year, the results from one year cannot be seen as representative of the general situation. Nevertheless, certain trends can be noted, especially when the residue situation is observed over a period of several years. Illustrations 2 and 3 show a comparison of findings over 5 years.

 

Illustration 2 Average number of different pesticide substances per sample in various types of vegetables (CVUAS 2012-2016; residue definitions according to legal stand in 2016).

Illustration 2 Average number of different pesticide substances per sample in various types of vegetables (CVUAS 2012-2016; residue definitions according to legal stand in 2016)

 

Illustration 3    Average amount of pesticide residues ((excluding bromide and fosetyl (sum)) in different types of vegetables (CVUAS 2012-2016; residue definitions are according to legal stand in 2016).

Illustration 3 Average amount of pesticide residues ((excluding bromide and fosetyl (sum)) in different types of vegetables (CVUAS 2012-2016; residue definitions are according to legal stand in 2016)

 

Leafy vegetables exhibited numerous different substances and the highest amount of pesticides. Sprout vegetables had the fewest cases of multiple residues. Their average amounts of pesticide were higher than those in fruiting and root vegetables, however, which had many cases of multiple residues, but low concentrations. The continued development of after-harvest treatments probably plays a role in this reduction of residues.

 

Chlorate

Analogous to 2014/2015, the rate of MRL exceedances is significantly higher than in previous years. This can be ascribed to the substance chlorate, which was only analyzed in individual cases before 2014.
Chlorate residues in plant-based foods can be traced to various sources other than its application as an herbicide (see Info Box).  Chlorate findings play a much greater role in vegetables than in fruits (see Illustration 4). In this reporting year chlorate was detected in 183 vegetable samples (21%), with amounts of up to 13.6 mg/kg (basil from the Netherlands). Violations occurred in 106 samples (12%), due to the exceedance of the MRL for chlorate (13% in 2015, 12% in 2014).

 

Illustration 4: High chlorate findings (>0.01 mg/kg); a comparison of conventional fruits and vegetables (CVUAS 2015-2016).

Illustration 4: High chlorate findings (>0.01 mg/kg); a comparison of conventional fruits and vegetables (CVUAS 2015-2016)

Info Box

Chlorate

Chlorates are effective as both herbicides and biocides. Since 2008, however, chlorate is no longer authorized for use as a pesticide in the EU. Sodium chlorate may also no longer be used in biocide products.


The definition for „pesticide residues“ in Regulation (EC) No. 396/2005 also encompasses residues from pesticide substances in food (including substances no longer authorized) that have pathways other than from the use of plant protectors (so-called dual-use substances). Chlorate, as a substance that is no longer authorized, is thereby covered by the EU-wide valid default MRL of 0.01 mg/kg, in accordance with Reg. (EC) No. 396/2005.


The presence of chlorate in food can result not only from its use as a pesticide, but also due to environmental pollution (contaminated rain- or irrigation water and soil), or as a residual of food production techniques, including methods used in farming, processing, preparation, or treatment.  The application of biocides, from which chlorate can result, is another possible source of contamination. In general, chlorate can be formed as a by-product of the disinfection of drinking/ industrial water with chlorine gas, hypochlorite, or chlorine dioxide. However, no limit value for chlorate in drinking water has been established by the drinking water ordinance.


Chlorate inhibits, reversibly, the intake of iodine into the thyroid gland and can cause unwanted health effects, especially in sensitive people such as children, pregnant women, or people with thyroid dysfunction. In addition to affecting thyroid function, chlorate can also damage the erythrocytes (formation of methaemoglobin, haemolysis).


The member states are carrying out a monitoring program to determine the degree of food and drinking water contamination, in order to provide data for a toxicological evaluation by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). Specific residue MRLs will then be established based on this information.

 

Sources: Federal Institute for Risk Assessment (BfR) [1], European Commission

 

The European Food Safety Authority established an acute reference dose (ARfD) of 0.036 mg chlorate per kg body weight. Applying the PRIMo model based on small children, and using a variability factor of 1, none of the samples exceeded the toxicological reference value. No acute health risk was thus determined.

 

Phosphonic Acid and Fosetyl

Phosphonic acid is included in the MRL for fosetyl (sum of fosetyl and phosphonic acids and their salts, calculated as fosetyl). Phosphonic acid was detected in 194 samples of vegetables (22%), in amounts up to 84 mg/kg (= 113 mg fosetyl, sum). Only four samples were detected with fosetyl per se (3x lettuce, 1x tomato). The analyzed samples contained an average of 1.3 mg fosetyl (sum) per kg vegetable. Violations occurred in 11 samples (1 %) due to exceedances of the MRL for fosetyl, sum. The average rate of pesticide per sample is strongly influenced by the comparatively high average amount of fosetyl residues. Therefore, Table 1 presents the average rates of pesticides per sample both with and without fosetyl (sum).

 

Info Box

Phosphonic Acid and Fosetyl

Both fosetyl and phosphonic acid are fungicides that are authorized for use in the EU, and fall under the applications area of Reg. (EC) No. 396/2005, regardless of their path of entry.

 

In addition to their use as fungicides, it is conceivable that phosphonate containing fertilizers could also present a source of entry. The categorization of phosphonic acids as a fungicide precludes this application for some years now. The still high findings indicate that plants retain the phosphonic acids, and only eliminate them over a period of time.

 

Bromide

Bromide (degradation product of the fumigant methyl bromide) tends to appear more frequently and in higher amounts in vegetable samples. Bromide can also occur naturally, as it comes from the soil. Therefore, only amounts >10 mg/kg are included in the assessment, to be sure that the detected bromide is indeed the result of an application of the fumigant methyl bromide. Bromide amounts >10 mg/kg were detected in 53 samples, with quantities up to 49 mg/kg. None of the samples were found to be in violation due to an exceedance of the MRL for bromide. Since the average pesticide amount is strongly influenced by the high levels of bromide, the statistics presented in Table 1 are also provided without bromide.
Because methyl bromide is a fast-acting, effective fumigant, it was widely used over a long period of time. Methyl bromide is very damaging to the ozone layer, however. In 1987, therefore, an international contract was made among 175 countries (The Montreal Protocol), in which the countries agreed to limit the use of methyl bromide until 2015, using alternative fumigants. A reduction of bromide residues is therewith expected in the coming years.

Perchlorate

Perchlorates are the salts of perchloric acid. They are generally soluble in water, and exist permanently in the environment. Their occurrence is either anthropogenic (caused by humans) or natural, existing in mineral deposits. Perchlorate is also formed as a result of oxidative processes in the atmosphere, and deposits itself onto dust particles. The industrial use of perchlorates is extensive and diverse: they are used in the metal processing industry, in paper finishing, as a diuretic, as an oxidant, and as an explosive and incendiary device. A further mode of entry could be the use of Chile saltpeter as fertilizer. This fertilizer is extracted mainly from natural deposits found in the Atacama Desert. Perchlorate is concentrated in such dry areas because it can’t get into the water cycle where it could be slowly degraded by microorganisms [3]. In the European Union perchlorates are currently neither authorized for use as a plant protectant nor as a biocide. Perchlorate findings, therefore, fall under the regulations for contaminants, which contain a general minimization imperative for foreign substances in food as a preventative measure for protection of consumers [4].
Perchlorate was found in 29% of the conventionally produced vegetable samples, although in very small concentrations. Fewer than 1% of the samples contained more than 0.1 mg/kg (see Table 7).

 

Table 7 Perchlorate Findings > 0.1 mg/kg in Vegetables (CVUAS 2016)
Vegetable type Amount in sample (mg(kg)

Lettuce

0.18

 

Chard

0.18

 

Spinach

0.89

 

Rucola

0.12

 

Rosemary

0.15

 

Coriander

0.26

 

Green beans

0.21

 

Melon

0.16

 

 

Unauthorized Use of Pesticides

For samples produced in Germany it was also checked whether the detected substances were authorized for the use on the specific crops. If the MRLs according to Reg. (EC) 396/2005 are adhered to, these goods are marketable. But the situation will be investigated, nevertheless, by the responsible authorities. The residue findings for unauthorized substances in vegetable samples from Germany are presented in Table 8.

 

Table 8 Residues of Substances not Authorized for Use in Vegetables Grown in Germany (CVUAS, 2016)
Vegetable Type
No. Samples from Germany
Samples w/ Substances Unauthorized in Germany
Samples w/ Substances Unauthorized for this Culture
Unauthorized Substances*

Leafy vegetables

216
1
8

Pendimethalin (2x); Chlormequat; Dikegulac; Prosulfocarb;

Metobromuron; Mandipropamid; Fluazifop, total

Fruiting
vegetables

83
2
2

Pyridaben; Spiromesifen

Sprout vegetables

66
1
1

Dikegulac

Root vegetables

56
0
1

Triadimefon, sum; Tebuconazole

Vegetable mix

2
0
0

-

TOTAL

423
4 (1 %)
12 (3 %)

 

* The responsible plant protection authorities are informed of these findings, and investigate whether, in fact, a violation of the legal regulations has occurred. Individual samples contained more than just one unauthorized substance.

 

None of matrices was particularly notable regarding unauthorized substances. There were just two findings, where the use wasn’t authorized for that crop; both corianders containing pendimethalin. The quantity detected, however, did not exceed the MRL in both cases. Four samples contained substances that were not authorized in Germany at all: spiromesifen in tomatoes, dikegulac in asparagus and savoy cabbage, and pyridaben in aubergines.

 

Info Box

Indication Authorization
((§ 12 (1) Plant Protection Law))

The Indication Authorization law has been valid for all pesticides since 1 July, 2001. It states that the substances in question are authorized, but may be utilized only within the scope of application stipulated in the Federal Office of Consumer Protection and Food Safety‘s (BVL) authorization databank.

Furthermore, the responsible authorities of the German states can, in accordance with § 22 of the plant protection law, determine certain conditions under which permission can be given in individual cases for the use of authorized pesticides in other areas. The Agricultural Technology Center Augustenberg is the responsible authority In Baden-Württemberg. This permission is only valid for the applicant operator and the specified surface area.

Photo credits

CVUA Stuttgart, pesticide laboratory

References

[1] Vorschläge des BfR zur gesundheitlichen Bewertung von Chloratrückständen in Lebensmitteln vom 12.05.2015

[2] Entscheidung der Kommission vom 10. November 2008 über die Nichtaufnahme von Chlorat in Anhang I der RL 91/414/EWG des Rates und die Aufhebung der Zulassungen für Pflanzenschutzmittel mit diesem Stoff (ABl. L307/7 vom 18.11.2008)

[3] Bericht des Umweltbundesamtes vom 18.09.2012 über das Vorkommen und die Verwendung von Perchloraten sowie deren wesentliche Eintragspfade in Lebensmittel

[4] Statement as regards the presence of perchlorate in food on 10 March 2015 (updated 23 June 2015)

 

Annexes

Annex 1: Substances with MRL exceedances, itemized by type of fruit and land of origin (CVUAS, 2016)
Substance Matrix found in exceedance of MRL

4-CPA

Zucchini (Turkey 4x)

Acetamiprid

Oakleaf lettuce (Italy)

Azoxystrobin

Chili peppers (Uganda)

Boscalid

Rosemary (Germany)

Carbofuran, sum

Iceberg lettuce (Spain); Chili peppers (Not Specified)

Chlorate

Head lettuce (Belgium 2x, France 2x, Italy 2x, Germany 3x); Romaine lettuce (Spain 2x); Green beans (Kenya, Germany 4x); Tomato (Spain, Netherlands 4x, Belgium 2x, Germany 3x, France); Chicory (Germany 3x); Asparagus (Peru 3x, Spain 2x); Spinach (Not Specified, Italy 2x); Radish, black ~ (Not Specified, Israel, Germany); Lambs lettuce (Germany 6x); Kohlrabi (Spain 2x, Italy 2x); Zucchini (Spain 4x, Not Specified, Turkey, Germany); Iceberg lettuce (Spain); Chili peppers (Thailand, Uganda, Netherlands); Coriander (Israel 2x, Germany 2x, Thailand); Mint (Israel); Dill leaves (Spain, Germany); Celery (Spain 2x, Italy, Germany); Celeriac (Germany); Vegetable mixture (Germany); Aubergine (Spain, Netherlands); Carrot (Not Specified, South Africa); Rucola (Italy 3x); Cucumber (Netherlands 3x); Oakleaf lettuce (Germany); Melon (Italy, Spain 4x); Lollo (Germany 3x); Lemon grass (Thailand); Leek (Belgium); Bell peppers (Hungary, Germany); Watermelon (Spain); Basil (Israel, Netherlands); Chard (Not Specified); Rosemary (Israel); Fennel (Italy); Okra (Ladyfingers) (Cameroon)

Chlorfenapyr

Cucumber (Italy); Melon (Italy); Chili peppers (Not Specified)

Chlorpyrifos

Coriander (Thailand)

Chlorpyrifos-methyl

Parsley (Not Specified); Tomato (Spain)

Chlorthal-dimethyl

Radish, black ~ (Not Specified)

Cypermethrin

Coriander (Thailand)

Diafenthiuron

Chili peppers (Pakistan)

Dikegulac

Savoy cabbage (Germany)

Dimethomorph

Rosemary (Germany); Kohlrabi (Germany)

Dithiocarbamates

Spring onion (Germany); Chard (Not Specified)

Dodine

Parsley (Italy)

Emamectin B1a/B1b

Okra (Ladyfingers) (India)

Ethion

Aubergine (Laos)

Flonicamid, sum

Okra (Ladyfingers) (Not Specified); Chili peppers (Turkey); Melon (Spain)

Fluazifop, Total

Broccoli (Belgium)

Fluometuron

Basil (Israel)

Formetanate

Oakleaf lettuce (Italy)

Fosetyl, sum

Sugarsnap peas (Kenya); Parsley (Germany); Batavia lettuce (Italy); Chinese cabbage (Germany); Asparagus (Germany 4x); Green beans (Morocco, Egypt); Beetroots (Germany)

Hexaconazole

Chili peppers (Not Specified)

Iprodione

Pak choi (Netherlands)

Methiocarb, sum

Leek (Belgium)

Methomyl, sum

Bell peppers (Morocco)

Metobromuron

Chard (Germany)

Metominostrobin

Chili peppers (Not Specified)

Nicotine

Spinach (Germany); Chard (Not Specified)

Permethrin

Okra (Ladyfingers) (Cameroon)

Profenofos

Coriander (Thailand)

Pyraclostrobin

Rosemary (Germany); Parsley (Italy)

Sulfotep

Coriander (Thailand)

 

 

Annex 2: Frequency of detection of the most important substances* for fresh vegetables, itemized by type of vegetable, as percent of analyzed samples (CVUAS, 2016)

Annex 2: Frequency of detection of the most important substances* for fresh vegetables, itemized by type of vegetable, as percent of analyzed samples (CVUAS, 2016).

 

 

Annex 2: Frequency of detection of the most important substances* for fresh vegetables, itemized by type of vegetable, as percent of analyzed samples (CVUAS, 2016).

*= Corresponding to the legal residue definition, see Annex 4 A = Acaricide; B = Bactericide; F = Fungicide; H = Herbicide; I = Insecticide; M = Metabolite; G = Growth Regulator

 

Annex 3: Frequency of pesticide residue findings, pursuant to the legal residue definition, in fresh vegetables from conventional cultivation (CVUAS, 2016)
Pesticides and Metabolites
No. of findings
 
mg/kg
< 0.01
< 0.05
< 0.2
< 1
< 5
< 20
> 20
Max.
Boscalid
279
172
62
27
11
5
1
1

34.1

Azoxystrobin
249
163
54
20
5
7
0
0

7.2

Fosetyl. sum
194
0
0
28
51
87
15
13

113

Chlorate
184
68
67
31
16
1
1
0

13.6

Iprodione
134
72
22
16
17
5
2
0

10.6

Difenoconazole
127
72
42
12
0
1
0
0

3.5

Cyprodinil
113
75
23
9
5
1
0
0

3.2

Dimethomorph
106
62
28
11
3
1
0
1

31.1

Imidacloprid
106
70
27
8
1
0
0
0

0.26

Fludioxonil
104
80
14
6
2
2
0
0

2.5

Pendimethalin
102
80
18
3
1
0
0
0

0.28

Spirotetramat. sum
96
36
38
18
4
0
0
0

0.94

Metalaxyl (-M)
94
72
16
5
1
0
0
0

0.3

Fluopyram
93
56
25
12
0
0
0
0

0.18

Pyraclostrobin
87
55
19
7
4
2
0
0

4.7

Chlorantraniliprole
85
60
23
2
0
0
0
0

0.094

Thiamethoxam
80
56
19
5
0
0
0
0

0.16

Propamocarb
79
20
25
13
10
11
0
0

3.2

lambda-Cyhalothrin
74
43
20
11
0
0
0
0

0.18

Acetamiprid
70
45
15
4
5
1
0
0

3.1

Tebuconazole
62
39
15
7
1
0
0
0

0.22

Clothianidin
59
56
3
0
0
0
0
0

0.028

Bromide*
53
0
0
0
0
0
48
5

48.7

Propamocarb-N-oxide
51
19
15
14
3
0
0
0

0.31

Thiacloprid
51
40
9
2
0
0
0
0

0.081

Mandipropamid
45
14
9
10
11
1
0
0

1.6

Chlorpyrifos
44
35
7
1
0
0
1
0

15.9

Cypermethrin
44
26
10
5
2
0
1
0

18.9

Indoxacarb
44
30
9
3
2
0
0
0

0.26

Propamocarb-N-desmethyl
44
21
19
4
0
0
0
0

0.15

Triadimefon. sum
44
29
13
2
0
0
0
0

0.14

Acetamiprid metabolite IM-2-1
39
24
14
1
0
0
0
0

0.085

Dithiocarbamates
37
0
2
19
13
3
0
0

1.9

Metalaxyl metabolite CGA 94689
36
30
4
2
0
0
0
0

0.18

Fluopicolide
35
20
7
7
1
0
0
0

0.39

Spinosad
33
28
1
2
1
1
0
0

1.2

Flonicamid. sum
31
14
7
2
8
0
0
0

0.6

Linuron
30
23
7
0
0
0
0
0

0.037

Pyrimethanil
29
16
11
2
0
0
0
0

0.074

Flutriafol
27
20
4
3
0
0
0
0

0.081

Pirimicarb. sum
26
20
4
2
0
0
0
0

0.086

Metrafenone
24
16
5
2
1
0
0
0

0.35

Iprodione metabolite
RP 30228
23
6
11
5
1
0
0
0

0.48

Myclobutanil
23
21
1
1
0
0
0
0

0.088

Pymetrozine
22
15
4
3
0
0
0
0

0.11

Spiromesifen
22
9
11
2
0
0
0
0

0.074

Trifloxystrobin
22
17
5
0
0
0
0
0

0.036

Deltamethrin
21
13
4
4
0
0
0
0

0.16

Chloridazon-desphenyl
19
10
8
1
0
0
0
0

0.1

Propyzamide
19
17
2
0
0
0
0
0

0.022

Aclonifen
16
13
3
0
0
0
0
0

0.024

BAC (n=8. 10. 12. 14. 16. 18)
16
1
14
1
0
0
0
0

0.058

Naphthalene acetamide
15
14
1
0
0
0
0
0

0.025

Chlorothalonil
15
4
3
5
3
0
0
0

0.85

Penconazole
15
12
3
0
0
0
0
0

0.03

Imazalil
14
7
1
3
3
0
0
0

0.79

Cyflufenamid
13
12
1
0
0
0
0
0

0.016

Fenhexamid
13
3
7
0
2
0
1
0

12.2

Hexythiazox
13
9
4
0
0
0
0
0

0.036

Prosulfocarb
13
10
3
0
0
0
0
0

0.044

Ametoctradin
12
8
3
1
0
0
0
0

0.093

Dimethoate. sum
12
12
0
0
0
0
0
0

0.008

Emamectin B1a/B1b
12
9
3
0
0
0
0
0

0.03

Famoxadone
12
7
4
1
0
0
0
0

0.078

Pyriproxyfen
12
9
2
1
0
0
0
0

0.072

DDAC (n=8. 10. 12)
11
0
9
2
0
0
0
0

0.059

Prothioconazole-desthio
11
7
4
0
0
0
0
0

0.028

Terbutylazine-desethyl
11
11
0
0
0
0
0
0

0.004

Triflumizole. sum
11
8
3
0
0
0
0
0

0.038

Bifenazate. sum
10
4
4
2
0
0
0
0

0.15

Chlorpropham
10
8
2
0
0
0
0
0

0.018

Cyfluthrin
10
7
3
0
0
0
0
0

0.022

Folpet
10
8
2
0
0
0
0
0

0.046

Gibberellic acid
10
1
9
0
0
0
0
0

0.021

Metribuzin
10
10
0
0
0
0
0
0

0.003

Chlorothalonil-4-hydroxy
9
5
4
0
0
0
0
0

0.021

DDT. sum
9
9
0
0
0
0
0
0

0.004

Fenpyrazamine
9
6
3
0
0
0
0
0

0.029

Metalaxyl metabolite CGA 108905
9
9
0
0
0
0
0
0

0.006

Carbendazim. sum
8
6
1
1
0
0
0
0

0.054

Clomazone
8
8
0
0
0
0
0
0

0.005

Cyprodinil metabolite CGA 304075
8
8
0
0
0
0
0
0

0.006

Epoxiconazole
8
8
0
0
0
0
0
0

0.004

Fluazifop
8
5
3
0
0
0
0
0

0.039

Azadirachtin A
7
4
2
0
1
0
0
0

0.62

Flubendiamide
7
2
5
0
0
0
0
0

0.041

Pyridaben
7
2
3
2
0
0
0
0

0.1

Pyridalyl
7
3
3
1
0
0
0
0

0.066

Terbuthylazine
7
7
0
0
0
0
0
0

0.009

4-CPA
6
2
2
2
0
0
0
0

0.07

Abamectin. sum
6
6
0
0
0
0
0
0

0.008

Chlorpyrifos-methyl
6
3
0
2
1
0
0
0

0.94

Cyazofamid
6
2
4
0
0
0
0
0

0.038

Cyromazine
6
2
3
1
0
0
0
0

0.062

Diphenylamine
6
3
3
0
0
0
0
0

0.022

Methoxyfenozide
6
3
2
0
1
0
0
0

0.82

Oxadiazon
6
4
2
0
0
0
0
0

0.035

Pirimicarb-desamido
6
6
0
0
0
0
0
0

0.004

Quinoxyfen
6
6
0
0
0
0
0
0

0.009

Tebufenpyrad
6
6
0
0
0
0
0
0

0.004

1-Naphthylacetic acid
5
5
0
0
0
0
0
0

0.008

2.4-D
5
5
0
0
0
0
0
0

0.004

Boscalid metabolite M 510F01
5
4
1
0
0
0
0
0

0.012

Chlorfenapyr
5
2
2
1
0
0
0
0

0.078

Aldrin/Dieldrin. sum
5
4
1
0
0
0
0
0

0.013

Ethofumesate
5
3
2
0
0
0
0
0

0.021

Etofenprox
5
4
1
0
0
0
0
0

0.021

ETU
5
3
2
0
0
0
0
0

0.02

Fenpyroximate
5
3
1
1
0
0
0
0

0.089

Fosthiazate
5
3
2
0
0
0
0
0

0.038

Maleic hydrazide
5
0
1
0
0
4
0
0

8.2

Methiocarb. sum
5
4
0
0
1
0
0
0

0.39

Piperonyl butoxide
5
4
1
0
0
0
0
0

0.012

Prochloraz. sum
5
2
3
0
0
0
0
0

0.033

Anthraquinone
4
4
0
0
0
0
0
0

0.003

Bupirimate
4
4
0
0
0
0
0
0

0.008

Fenpropidin
4
4
0
0
0
0
0
0

0.005

Fipronil. sum
4
4
0
0
0
0
0
0

0.003

Kresoxim-methyl
4
3
1
0
0
0
0
0

0.018

Lufenuron
4
3
1
0
0
0
0
0

0.049

MCPA
4
4
0
0
0
0
0
0

0.002

Metobromuron
4
3
1
0
0
0
0
0

0.029

Nicotine
4
1
3
0
0
0
0
0

0.023

Pirimicarb. desmethyl-formamido
4
4
0
0
0
0
0
0

0.006

Spinetoram
4
3
1
0
0
0
0
0

0.012

Tebufenozide
4
2
1
1
0
0
0
0

0.13

Thiabendazole
4
3
1
0
0
0
0
0

0.013

Tolclofos-methyl
4
2
1
1
0
0
0
0

0.077

Trimethylsulfonium cation
4
2
1
1
0
0
0
0

0.14

Buprofezin
3
2
1
0
0
0
0
0

0.015

Chlorthal-dimethyl
3
2
0
1
0
0
0
0

0.16

Clofentezine
3
2
0
1
0
0
0
0

0.11

Dikegulac
3
2
1
0
0
0
0
0

0.02

Endosulfan. sum
3
3
0
0
0
0
0
0

0.003

Etoxazole
3
3
0
0
0
0
0
0

0.003

Fenarimol
3
3
0
0
0
0
0
0

0.001

Hexaconazole
3
2
1
0
0
0
0
0

0.012

Metalaxyl metabolite CGA 67869
3
2
0
0
1
0
0
0

0.23

Metamitron
3
3
0
0
0
0
0
0

0.005

Pirimicarb-desamido-desmethyl
3
3
0
0
0
0
0
0

0.006

Pirimiphos-methyl
3
2
1
0
0
0
0
0

0.046

Profenofos
3
2
0
0
0
1
0
0

2.2

Quizalofop. sum
3
3
0
0
0
0
0
0

0.002

Spirodiclofen
3
1
2
0
0
0
0
0

0.025

Teflubenzuron
3
1
1
1
0
0
0
0

0.052

Acrinathrin
2
2
0
0
0
0
0
0

0.006

Benzyladenine
2
2
0
0
0
0
0
0

0.006

Bifenthrin
2
2
0
0
0
0
0
0

0.005

Carbofuran. sum
2
1
1
0
0
0
0
0

0.02

Cymoxanil
2
0
2
0
0
0
0
0

0.032

Cyproconazole
2
2
0
0
0
0
0
0

0.002

DEET
2
2
0
0
0
0
0
0

0.003

Ethirimol
2
2
0
0
0
0
0
0

0.001

Zoxamide
2
1
1
0
0
0
0
0

0.044

Fluazifop. total
2
0
1
0
1
0
0
0

0.69

Flufenacet
2
2
0
0
0
0
0
0

0.003

Fluxapyroxad
2
2
0
0
0
0
0
0

0.002

Formetanate
2
0
2
0
0
0
0
0

0.029

Metaflumizone
2
1
0
0
1
0
0
0

0.75

Methomyl. sum
2
0
1
1
0
0
0
0

0.056

Metolachlor. sum
2
2
0
0
0
0
0
0

0.004

Oxamyl-oxime
2
2
0
0
0
0
0
0

0.008

Procymidone
2
2
0
0
0
0
0
0

0.004

Spiroxamine
2
1
1
0
0
0
0
0

0.012

Tetraconazole
2
2
0
0
0
0
0
0

0.009

Thiophanate-methyl
2
2
0
0
0
0
0
0

0.002

2-Naphthoxyacetic acid
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0

0.002

Benalaxyl
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0

0.006

Benfluralin
1
0
1
0
0
0
0
0

0.013

Bentazone
1
0
1
0
0
0
0
0

0.01

Bromoxynil
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0

0.003

Captan
1
0
1
0
0
0
0
0

0.04

Chlormequat
1
0
1
0
0
0
0
0

0.014

Clopyralid
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0

0.007

Diafenthiuron
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
0

0.15

Dicofol
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0

0.001

Dinotefuran
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0

0.006

Diuron
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0

0.003

Dodine
1
0
0
0
1
0
0
0

0.29

Ethephon
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
0

0.098

Ethion
1
0
0
0
1
0
0
0

0.42

Fenamiphos. sum
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0

0.006

Fenbuconazole
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0

0.001

Fenpropimorph
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0

0.002

Flonicamid metabolite TFNA-AM
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0

0.001

Fluacrypyrim
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0

0.003

Fluometuron
1
0
1
0
0
0
0
0

0.025

Fluoxastrobin
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0

0.002

Fluroxypyr
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0

0.001

Flurprimidol
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0

0.003

Flusilazole
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0

0.004

Haloxyfop
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0

0.001

Icaridin
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0

0.002

Iprovalicarb
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0

0.002

Isoprothiolane
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0

0.001

Isoproturon
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0

0.005

Ivermectin
1
0
1
0
0
0
0
0

0.01

Lenacil
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0

0.002

Mepanipyrim
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
0

0.089

Metconazole
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0

0.002

Methabenzthiazuron
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0

0.001

Metominostrobin
1
0
1
0
0
0
0
0

0.038

Novaluron
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0

0.002

Oxamyl
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0

0.004

Pencycuron
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0

0.002

Permethrin
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
0

0.19

Phenmedipham
1
0
1
0
0
0
0
0

0.032

Phorate. sum
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0

0.005

Propiconazole
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0

0.003

PTU
1
0
1
0
0
0
0
0

0.024

Pyridate. sum
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
0

0.056

Quintozene. sum
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0

0.001

Sulfotep
1
0
1
0
0
0
0
0

0.015

Tefluthrin
1
0
1
0
0
0
0
0

0.026

Tepraloxydim
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0

0.004

Tetradifon
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0

0.004

Thiabendazole-5-hydroxy
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0

0.002

Tri-Allate
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0

0.003

Tricyclazole
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0

0.003

Vinclozolin
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0

0.003

*Bromide can also occur naturally. Its use as a fumigant can only be assumed with amounts >5 mg/kg; therefore only amounts >10 mg/kg are listed.

 

Annex 4: Substances and metabolites included in the residue definition and only included in the calculation as the sum (one residue)
Parameter Included in the residue definition and analytically recorded

Abamectin

Avermectin B1a
Avermectin B1b
8.9-Z-Avermectin B1a

Aldicarb. sum

Aldicarb
Aldicarb-sulfoxide
Aldicarb-sulfon

Amitraz. sum

Amitraz
BTS 27271

Benzalkonium chloride. sum  (BAC)

Benzyldimethyloctylammonium chloride (BAC-C8)
Benzyldimethyldecylammonium chloride (BAC-C10)
Benzyldodecyldimethylammonium chloride (BAC-C12)
Benzyldimethyltetradecylammonium chloride (BAC-C14
Benzylhexadecyldimethylammonium chloride (BAC-C16)
Benzyldimethylstearylammonium chloride (BAC-C18)

Carbofuran. sum

Carbofuran
3-Hydroxy-Carbofuran

DDT. sum

DDE. pp-
DDT. pp-
DDD. pp-
DDT. op-

Dialkyldimethylammonium chloride. sum (DDAC)

Dioctyldimethylammonium chloride (DDAC-C8)
Didecyldimethylammonium chloride (DDAC-C10)
Didodecyldimethylammonium chloride (DDAC-C12)

Dieldrin. sum

Dieldrin
Aldrin

Dimethoate. sum

Dimethoate
Omethoate

Disulfoton. sum

Disulfoton
Disulfoton-sulfoxide
Disulfoton-sulfon

Endosulfan. sum

Endosulfan. alpha-
Endosulfan. beta-
Endosulfan-sulfate

Fenamiphos. sum

Fenamiphos
Fenamiphos-sulfoxide
Fenamiphos-sulfon

Fenthion. sum

Fenthion
Fenthion-sulfoxide
Fenthion-sulfon
Fenthion-oxon
Fenthion-oxon-sulfoxide
Fenthion-oxon-sulfon

Fipronil. sum

Fipronil
Fipronil-sulfon

Flonicamid. sum

Flonicamid
TFNG
TFNA
TFNA-AM

Fosetyl. sum

Fosetyl
Phosphonic acid

Glufosinate. sum

Glufosinate
MPPA
N-Acetyl-Glufosinate

Heptachlor. sum

Heptachlor
Heptachlor epoxide

Malathion. sum

Malathion
Malaoxon

Methiocarb. sum

Methiocarb
Methiocarb-sulfoxide
Methiocarb-sulfon

Methomyl. sum

Methomyl
Thiodicarb

Milbemectin

Milbemectin A3
Milbemectin A4

Oxydemeton-S-methyl. sum

Oxydemeton-methyl
Demeton-S-methyl-sulfon

Parathion-methyl. sum

Parathion-methyl
Paraoxon-methyl

Phorate. sum

Phorate
Phorate-sulfoxide*
Phorate-sulfon
Phorate-oxon
Phorate-oxon-sulfoxide*
Phorate-oxon-sulfon

Phosmet. sum

Phosmet
Phosmet-oxon

Pirimicarb. sum

Pirimicarb
Desmethyl-pirimicarb

Prochloraz. sum

Prochloraz
2.4.6-Trichlorophenol
BTS 44595
BTS 44596
BTS 9608
BTS 40348

Pyrethrins. sum

Pyrethrin I
Pyrethrin II
Jasmolin I
Jasmolin II
Cinerin I
Cinerin II

Pyridate. sum

Pyridate
Pyridafol

Quintozene. sum

Quintozene
Pentachloroanilin

Sethoxydim. sum

Sethoxydim
Clethodim

Spirotetramate. sum

Spirotetramate.
Spirotetramate-Enol.
Spirotetramate. Ketohydroxy
Spirotetramate. Monohydroxy
Spirotetramate-Enol-Glykoside

Terbufos. sum

Terbufos
Terbufos-sulfon
Terbufos-sulfoxide

Thiamethoxam. sum

Thiamethoxam
Clothianidin

Tolylfluanid. sum

Tolylfluanid
DMST

Triadimefon. sum

Triadimefon
Triadimenol

Triflumizol

Triflumizol
Triflumizol Metabolit FM-6-1

 

Translated by:

Catherine Leiblein

 

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Report published on 03.08.2017 11:14:16