Residues and Contaminants in Processed Foods, Mushrooms, Cereals and Potatoes, 2016

Summary of Residue Findings in Products from Conventional Production

Report from a day in the lab

Ellen Scherbaum, Kathi Hacker und Alexander Lemke

 

In 2016, in addition to 1,736 samples of fresh vegetables and fruit from conventional production, 413 samples of processed foods, mushrooms, cereals and potatoes from conventional production were analyzed for the presence of residues of over 700 active substances and contaminants. In all, 402 of these samples (97%) were detected with residues from a total of 172 different active substances. The maximum residue level (MRL) was exceeded in 99 of the 413 samples (24%), a rate that is slightly lower than that of the previous year (27%). A large number of the exceedances were due to chlorate; the rate of violations excluding chlorate was, for 39 samples, 9.4%.

 

Schmuckbild.

 

 

Investigatory Background

The focus of pesticide residue analyses is usually on fresh fruit and vegetables. However, processed commodities such as deep-frozen products, dried vegetables and fruits, preserved foods, and juices are also consumed in large amounts and must, therefore, also be analyzed. The further processing of foods often leads to a reduction in residues; the judgment of whether a product has met the EU-wide legal MRL must therefore take this effect of processing into consideration.

 

Info Box

Consideration of Processing Factors

As a rule, Regulation (EC) No. 396/2005 regulates the maximum authorized amount of pesticide residues for unprocessed foods. The level of residues from pesticides/active substances in and on unprocessed foods can change as a result of processing procedures, however. Thus, when making a legal judgment regarding the acceptability of the detected quantity of residues from active substances in processed foods, Regulation (EC) No. 396/2005 stipulates that these changes must be considered. These would include the procedures used in making dried fruit, preserves, juices or wine. For example, if not sour cherries themselves, but preserves made from the cherries were being analyzed, a processing factor would have to be considered, because the process of making preserves usually results in a reduction of residues. That means the amount of residues detected in the total product (cherries plus infusion) is referred to that of the raw, unprocessed product (cherries), and this theoretically determined amount is compared to the valid MRL for the unprocessed product. In contrast, the process of drying fruits concentrates the active substances in the fruit; therefore, the amount of residues in the original product is lower than that in the dried fruit.

 

Summary

Of all the analyzed conventional samples, in 413 (97%) residues were detected, with a total of 172 different active substances. The MRL was exceeded in 99 of the 413 samples (24%), a rate that is slightly lower than that of the previous year (27%); see Table 1. The cause for this high rate in the last two years is the expansion of the spectrum of investigated substances to include polar pesticides and the high number of MRL exceedances for the substance chlorate. When excluding the samples with high levels of chlorate from the calculation, the percentage of MRL exceedances lies at 9.4%, for 39 samples.

 

Table 1: Pesticide residues in processed foods, mushrooms, cereals and potatoes from conventional production (CVUAS, 2016)
Number of Samples
413

Samples with residues

402

Samples with residues over the MRL*

99

Average quantity of pesticides

2.1 mg/kg

Average quantity of pesticides excluding fosetyl**, bromide, surface treatment substances

0.41 mg/kg

Average number of substances per sample

4.6

* MRL = Maximum residue level,
**Sum of fosetyl and phosphonic acid; both are fungicides that are widely used, which can lead to high levels of residues.

 

The level of pesticide residues differed, sometimes greatly, by type of commodity. The results of the residue analyses are presented in Tables 2 and 3, differentiated by type of sample.

 

Table 2: Residues in processed food, mushrooms, cereal, and potato samples from conventional cultivation, by type of sample (CVUAS, 2016).
Sample Type No. of Samples
With Residues
With Multiple-Residues
Samples
>MRL*
No. Findings
>MRL*
Substances > MRL*

Fats, Oils

17

11 (65%)

8 (47%)

 

 

 

Cereals

23

19 (83%)

13 (57%)

5 (22%)

5

Glyphosate (4x); Dichlorvos

Cereal products

8

8 (100%)

7 (88%)

 

 

 

Legumes, oil seeds,
nuts, soy

32

29 (91%)

65 (98%)

4 (13%)

4

Glyphosate; Fosetyl, sum;
Piperonyl butoxide;
Haloxyfop, sum

Potatoes and 
starchy vegetables

65

63 (97%)

17 (53%)

8 (12%)

8

Chlorate (2x); Fosetyl, sum;
Fluazifop; Nicotine;
Flonicamid, sum; BAC (n=8 to 18);
Haloxyfop, sum

Vegetable
products

66

66 (100%)

54 (83%)

47 (71%)

86

Chlorate (38x);
Triadimefon, sum (5x);
Dithiocarbamate (4x);
Metalaxyl (-M) (3x); Boscalid (3x);
Lambda-Cyhalothrin (3x);
Nicotine (4x); Fosetyl, sum (2x);
Chlorpyrifos (2x);
Cypermethrin (2x); Iprodione (2x);
Trimethylsulfonium cation (2x);
Endosulfan, sum; Myclobutanil;
Penconazole; Famoxadone;
Tebuconazole; Dimethomorph;
Flusilazole; Pyrimethanil;
Pyraclostrobin; Metrafenone;
Tebufenpyrad; Methoxyfenozide;
Fenbutatin-oxide; Trifloxystrobin;
Azoxystrobin; Fluopyram

Mushrooms

56

50 (89%)

31 (55%)

5 (8,9%)

6

Chlorate (3x); Chlorpropham;
Mepiquat;
Trimethylsulfonium cation

Mushroom
products

16

16 (100%)

16 (100%)

5 (31%)

5

Chlorate (4x); Nicotine

Fruit products

71

67 (94%)

62 (87%)

12 (17%)

13

Carbofuran, sum (3x);
Chlorate (5x);
Ethephon (2x); Fenazaquin (2x);
Nicotine

Non-alcoholic drinks

38

35 (92%)

30 (79%)

8 (21%)

8

Chlorate (8x)

Beers and raw materials

3*

3

3

 

 

 

Wine and wine products

27

27 (100%)

27 (100%)

 

 

 

Nutritional
supplements

2

1

1

1

11

Chlorate; Profenofos; Acetamiprid;
Methomyl, sum; Lufenuron;
Cypermethrin; Permethrin;
Deltamethrin;
Emamectin B1a/B1b;
Fipronil, sum; BAC (n=8 to 18)

Baby food

4

4

0

4

4

Fosetyl, sum (4x)

Other

3

3

3

 

 

 

TOTAL 413 402 (97 %) 337 (78 %) 99 (24 %) 150 -

*MRL = Maximum residue level;
** For sample size below five, no percentage is given

 

Table 3: Average no. substances per sample and average quantity (mg/kg) in processed food, mushrooms, cereal, and potato samples from conventional cultivation, by type of sample (CVUAS, 2016).
Sample Type
No. of Samples
With Residues
Ave. no. Substances per Sample
Ave. Quantity (mg/kg)*
Comments

Fats, Oils

17

11 (65%)

1.6

0.008

 

Cereals

23

19 (83%)

2

0.1

 

Cereal products

8

8 (100%)

4.4

0.34

 

Legumes, oil seeds, nuts, soy

32

29 (91%)

1.9

0.24

 

Potatoes and
starchy vegetables

65

63 (97%)

3,.

0.8

 

Vegetable
products

66

66 (100%)

6.9

0.77

 

Mushrooms

56

50 (89%)

1.9

0.11

 

Mushroom products

16

16 (100%)

3.6

0.31

 

Fruit products

71

67 (94%)

8.1

0.28

 

Non-alcoholic drinks

38

35 (92%)

4

0.056

 

Beers and raw materials

3*

3

5

5.3

3 samples of hops

Wine and wine products

27

27 (100%)

7.5

0.13

 

Nutritional
supplements

2

1

9.5

4.4

1 sample of moringa

Baby food

4

4

1

0

 

Other

3

3

2.5

0.02

 

TOTAL 413 402 (97 %) 4.6 0.41 -

* Excluding fosetyl, bromide, surface treatment products
** For sample size below five, no percentage is given

 

Detailed prensentation of selected topics

Chlorate

Since 2014 the rate of MRL exceedance has become significantly higher than in previous years. This is mainly due to chlorate, which was not previously analyzed, or only in individual cases. A total of 61 of the 413 samples exceeded the MRL of 0.01 mg/kg for chlo-rate. Chlorate residues in plant-based foods can be caused by factors other than the application of herbicides (an unlikely source, since this use has already been banned EU-wide for a long time). These include:

  • chlorinated water used for irrigating or watering gardens
  • chlorinated water used for irrigating or watering gardens
  • disinfection measures using chlorine-containing processing water.

 

This issue was already extensively presented in 2014 and 2015 in three Internet articles (see also Internet reports under www.cvuas.de):

  • Chlorate Residues in Plant-Based Food: Origin Unknown (11 March, 2014)
  • Chlorate Residues in Carrots Traced to Chlorinated Water Used in Post-Harvest Treatment (11 March, 2014)
  • Chlorate Residues in Plant-Based Food: an Update (9 April, 2015).

 

Among the processed food, mushrooms, cereals and potatoes evaluated in 2016, processed vegetables and fruit were most often to be found with residues of chlorate that exceeded the MRL of 0.01 mg/kg. A summary of these findings is presented in Table 4. The highest amounts of chlorate detected in processed fruit and vegetables, mushrooms, cereals and potato samples from conven-tional production are depicted in Table 5.

 

Info Box

Chlorate

Chlorates are effective as both herbicides and biocides. Since 2008, however, chlorate is no longer authorized for use as a pesticide in the EU. Sodium chlorate may also no longer be used in biocide products.

The definition for „pesticide residues“ in Regulation (EC) No. 396/2005 also encompasses residues from pesticide substances in food (including substances no longer authorized) that have pathways other than from the use of plant protectors (so-called dual-use substances). Chlorate, as a substance that is no longer authorized, is thereby covered by the EU-wide valid default MRL of 0.01 mg/kg, in accordance with Reg. (EC) No. 396/2005.

The presence of chlorate in food can result not only from its use as a pesticide, but also due to environmental pollution (contaminated rain- or irrigation water and soil), or as a residual of food production techniques, including methods used in farming, processing, preparation, or treatment.  The application of biocides, from which chlorate can result, is another possible source of contamination. In general, chlorate can be formed as a by-product of the disinfection of drinking/ industrial water with chlorine gas, hypochlorite, or chlorine dioxide. However, no limit value for chlorate in drinking water has been established by the drinking water ordinance.

Chlorate inhibits, reversibly, the intake of iodine into the thyroid gland and can cause unwanted health effects, especially in sensitive people such as children, pregnant women, or people with thyroid dysfunction. In addition to affecting thyroid function, chlorate can also damage the erythrocytes (formation of methaemoglobin, haemolysis).

The member states are carrying out a monitoring program to determine the degree of food and drinking water contamination, in order to provide data for a toxicological evaluation by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). Specific residue MRLs will then be established based on this information.

 

Sources:: Federal Institute for Risk Assessment (BfR) [1], European Commission [2]

 

Table 4: MRL exceedances of chlorate in processed fruits and vegetables, mushrooms, cereals and potatoes from conventional cultivation, by type of sample (CVUAS, 2016)
 
No. of Samples
Chlorate > MRL

Vegetable products, excluding frozen

15

1 (7 %)

Bell peppers, dried

1

1

Frozen vegetables

51

37 (73 %)

Brussels sprouts, frozen

10

9

Spinach, frozen

2

1

Chives, frozen

4

3

Parsley, frozen

3

2

Broccoli, frozen

6

5

Carrots, frozen

1

1

Peas, frozen

9

6

Green beans, frozen

11

8

Parisian carrots, frozen

2

2

Frozen fruit

47

2 (4.3 %)

Strawberries, frozen

3

1

Blueberries, frozen

2

1

Fruit products, excluding frozen

25

3 (12 %)

Papaya, dried

1

1

Plums, dried

3

2

Mushrooms and Mushroom products

72

7 (9.7 %)

White button mushrooms

20

1

Wild mushrooms

23

2

White button mushrooms, frozen

4

3

Wild mushrooms, frozen

5

1

Other

203

11 (5.4 %)

Non-alcoholic drinks

38

8

Nutritional supplements

2

1

Potatoes and potato products

65

2

 

Table 5: The highest measured chlorate quantities in processed fruits and vegetables, mushrooms, cereals, and potato samples from conventional cultivation (CVUAS, 2016).
Type of food Origin
Substance
Quantity (mg/kg)

Chives, frozen

Unknown

Chlorate

3.7

Cultured mushrooms

Poland

Chlorate

1.1

Bell peppers, dried

China

Chlorate

0.42

Broccoli, frozen

Unknown

Chlorate

0.28

Chanterelles, frozen

Unknown

Chlorate

0.19

 

A comparison of the chlorate findings in fresh and processed fruits and vegetables is presented in Illustration 1. A notable difference between the fruits and vegetables in terms of the rate of violations can be seen in both categories. This hints at varying modes of entry.

 

Illustration 1: Chlorate findings in fresh and processed fruit and vegetables (CVUAS 2015, 2016).

Illustration 1: Chlorate findings in fresh and processed fruit and vegetables (CVUAS 2015, 2016)

 

Especially eye catching is the rate of 71% for pesticide exceedances among the vegetable products, the majority of cases concerning chlorate. Grape leaves and so-called “super foods” were notable among the vegetable products in 2016.

 

Grape Leaves

Grape leaves stuffed with a variety of fillings are a popular, widespread dish in Southern European and Oriental cuisine.  Since different pesticides are used in the cultivation of wine and table grapes, residues are also expected to be found in grape leaves.
Grape leaves are a side-product of grape production; they aren’t normally grown alone, as an independent culture. That means very few special pesticide MRLs for grape leaves have been applied for. As a result, the default MRLs for grape leaves are mostly very low, set at the lower limit of the analytical of determination. The producers of grape leaves could apply for higher MRLs, but the preparation of the necessary database, obtained via the carrying out of residue analyses, is complex and expensive. In view of the much lower consumption rate of grape leaves compared to that of table grapes, which have to some degree much higher MRLs, an exceedance of the MRL for grape leaves would not be expected to harm the consumer. Nevertheless, the existing, legally binding MRLs are to be adhered to.
Grape leaves from Turkey have been conspicuous in the last several years for their multiple exceedances of the legal MRL.  In 2014, therefore, greater control measures were taken on imported Turkish grape leaves, in accordance with Regulation (EC) No. 669/2009. 

Nevertheless, in 2016 MRL exceedances were detected anew for grape leaves marinated in brine, often with exceedances of more than one substance, as shown in Table 6.

 

Table 6: Grape leaves in brine; only pesticide amounts >0.01 mg/kg are listed
Sample No. Origin Pesticide
Amount (mg/kg)
> MRL*
Sample 1 Turkey

Boscalid

0.30

yes

Cypermethrin

0.28

yes

Deltamethrin

0.066

 

Kresoxim-methyl

0.016

 

Metalaxyl (-M)

0.071

yes

Triadimefon, sum

0.21

yes

Sample 2 Turkey

Boscalid

0.37

yes

Cypermethrin

0.37

yes

Dithiocarbamate

4.0

yes

Kresoxim-methyl

0.67

 

Metalaxyl (-M)

0.21

yes

Metrafenone

0.96

yes

Triadimefon, sum

2.7

yes

Trifloxystrobin

2.8

yes

Sample 3 Bulgarien

Flusilazole

0.024

yes

Iprodione

0.018

yes

Sample 4 Turkey

Chlorpyrifos

0.066

yes

Dithiocarbamate

0.59

yes

Endosulfan, sum

0.12

yes

Nicotine

0.030

yes

Triadimefon, sum

0.47

yes

Sample 5 Bulgarien

Azoxystrobin

0.17

yes

Boscalid

0.14

yes

Chloranthraniliprole

0.029

 

Chlorpyrifos

0.51

yes

Cyflufenamid

0.013

 

Dimethomorph

0.025

yes

Dithiocarbamate

0.92

yes

Famoxadone

0.039

yes

Fenbutatin-oxide

0.34

yes

Fosetyl, sum

2.3

yes

Iprodione

1.3

yes

Lambda-Cyhalothrin

0.036

yes

Methoxyfenozide

1.4

yes

Myclobutanil

0.21

yes

Penconazole

0.084

yes

Pyrimethanil

0.24

yes

Tebufenpyrad

0.20

yes

Tetraconazole

0.013

 

Triadimefon, sum

0.15

yes

Sample 6 Turkey

Chlorpyrifos

0.014

 

Fosetyl, sum

2.4

yes

Lambda-Cyhalothrin

0.77

yes

Nicotine

0.025

yes

Triadimefon, sum

3.4

yes

Sample 7

 

Turkey

Dithiocarbamate

1.3

yes

Fluopyram

10.5

yes

Imazalil

0.043

 

Lambda-Cyhalothrin

0.090

yes

Metalaxyl (-M)

0.13

yes

Nicotine

0.015

yes

Pyraclostrobin

0.056

yes

Tebuconazole

1.2

yes

Triadimefon, sum

0.036

 

* MRL=Maximum residue level

 

The analyses will continue in 2017.

 

„Super foods“

Moringa, along with other alleged “super foods” such as cereal grasses, spirulina, chlorella and maca, is currently very popular. The dried, pulverized leaves are supposed to be sprinkled over breakfast cereal or used in smoothies. The more convenient method is the consumption of a moringa powder capsule.

Moringa and other “super foods” are often offered as products of organic cultivation. Only four of the moringa samples analyzed in 2016 were conventionally produced.

 

Table 7: Moringa; only pesticide amounts >0.01 mg/kg are listed
Sample No. Origin Pesticide
Quantity (mg/kg)
> MRL*
Sample 1 Not specified

Acetamiprid

0.12

yes

BAC (n=8-18)

0.15

yes

Bromide

17.1

 

Carbendazim, sum

0.056

 

Chlorate

0.012

yes

Chlorpyrifos

0.018

 

Cypermethrin

4.1

yes

Deltamethrin

0.16

yes

Emamectin B1a/B1b

0.021

yes

Fipronil, Sum

0.089

yes

Imidacloprid

0.026

 

Lambda-Cyhalothrin

0.84

 

Lufenuron

0.15

yes

Methomyl, sum

1.1

yes

Permethrin

1.7

yes

Profenofos

0.15

yes

Trimethylsulfonium cation

0.034

 
Sample 2 Not specified

BAC (n=8-18)

0.076

 

Bromide

59.9

 

Chlorpyrifos

0.011

 

Trimethylsulfonium cation

0.019

 
Sample 3 Philippines

2,4-D

0.023

 

Trimethylsulfoneium-Cation

0.078

yes

Sample 4 Philippines

Atrazin

0.023

 

Bromide

42.4

 

Emamectin B1a/B1b

0.012

 

Lambda-Cyhalothrin

0.17

 

Nicotine

0.71

yes

Trimethylsulfonium cation

0.12

yes

*MRL=Maximum residue level

 

A detailed presentation on moringa, including data on the organic samples, can be found on our Homepage.

 

Other „super foods“ are from cereal or fruit products, such as chia seeds and goji berries. In 2016, five samples of conventionally produced chia seeds and goji berries were analyzed, all of which exceeded the maximum residue levels.

 

Table 8: Chia and Goji samples; only pesticide amounts >0.01 mg/kg are listed
Type of Sample Origin Pesticide
Quantity (mg/kg)
> MRL*
Chia   Not specified

Fosetyl, sum

0.28

 

Haloxyfop, sum

0.11

yes

Chia Not specified

Glyphosate

1.1

yes

Goji   China

2,4-D

0.019

 

Acetamiprid

0.28

 

Amitraz, sum

0.081

 

Azoxystrobin

0.014

 

Carbendazim, sum

0.11

 

Carbofuran, sum

0.050

yes

Chlorpyrifos

0.083

 

Cypermethrin

0.12

 

Difenoconazole

0.088

 

Fenpropathrin

0.014

 

Imidacloprid

0.076

 

Iprodione

0.012

 

Kresoxim-methyl

0.021

 

Lambda-Cyhalothrin

0.044

 

Prochloraz, sum

0.083

 

Propargit

0.042

 

Pyridaben

0.026

 

Tebuconazole

0.094

 

Thiamethoxam

0.040

 

Thiophanat-methyl

0.098

 

Triadimefon, sum

0.037

 
Goji   Not specified

Acetamiprid

0.22

 

Amitraz, sum

0.062

 

Carbendazim, sum

0.12

 

Carbofuran, sum

0.019

yes

Chlorpyrifos

0.028

 

Cypermethrin

0.067

 

Difenoconazole

0.036

 

Imidacloprid

0.068

 

Lambda-Cyhalothrin

0.020

 

Prochloraz, sum

0.085

 

Propargit

0.044

 

Pyridaben

0.024

 

Tebuconazole

0.017

 

Thiophanate-methyl

0.015

 

Triadimefon, sum

0,021

 
Goji Not specified

Acetamiprid

0.13

 

Acetamiprid Metabolit IM-2-1

0.019

 

Amitraz, sum

0.024

 

Anthrachinon

0.024

 

Carbofuran, sum

0.013

yes

Imidacloprid

0.011

 

Nicotine

0.12

yes

Triadimefon, sum

0.012

 

*MRL=Maximum residue level

 

A presentation of our analytical results for organically produced “super foods” can be found in our organic monitoring report from 2016 (only German).

 

Further exceedances of the maximum residue level (excluding chlorate) are listed in Table 9. There are no particular groupings – most are single cases. Processed foods are not required to provide the country of origin, so the origin is mostly unknown.

 

Table 9: Other exceedances of the maximum residue level (excluding chlorate)
Type of food Substances w/ exceedances of the MRL

Red currants, frozen

Ethephon (2x); Fenazaquin (2x)

Buckwheat

Glyphosate (3x)

Millet

Glyphosate

Rye

Dichlorvos

Chickpeas

Fosetyl, sum

Lentils

Piperonyl butoxide

Potatoes

Flonicamid, sum; Fluazifop; Fosetyl, sum; Haloxyfop, sum

Potatoes, blanched

BAC (n=8-18)

Cultured mushrooms

Mepiquat; Trimethylsulfoneium-Cation

Oil seeds

Glyphosate; Haloxyfop, sum

Baby food

Fosetyl, sum (4x)

Manioc

Nicotine

Hedgehog mushrooms

Chlorpropham

Porcini mushroom, dried

Nicotine

 

Photo credits:

CVUA Stuttgart, pesticide laboratory.

 

References:

[1] Vorschläge des BfR zur gesundheitlichen Bewertung von Chloratrückständen in Lebensmitteln vom 12.05.2015

[2] Entscheidung der Kommission vom 10. November 2008 über die Nichtaufnahme von Chlorat in Anhang I der RL 91/414/EWG des Rates und die Aufhebung der Zulassungen für Pflanzenschutzmittel mit diesem Stoff (ABl. L307/7 vom 18.11.2008)

 

Translator:

Catherine Leiblein.

 

Annex

Annex 1: Active substances and metabolites included in the definition of residues and only included as “sum” in the calculation
Parameter

 

In der Rückstandsdefinition enthalten und analytisch erfasst

Abamectin

Avermectin B1a
Avermectin B1b
8,9-Z-Avermectin B1a

Aldicarb, sum

Aldicarb
Aldicarb-sulfoxide
Aldicarb-sulfone

Amitraz, total

Amitraz
BTS 27271

Benzalkonium chloride, sum  (BAC)

Benzyl dimethyl octyl ammonium chloride (BAC-C8)
Benzyl dimethyl decyl ammonium chloride (BAC-C10)
Benzyl dodecyl dimethyl ammonium chloride (BAC-C12)
Benzyl dimethyl tetradecyl ammonium chloride (BAC-C14
Benzyl hexadecyl dimethyl ammonium chloride (BAC-C16)
Benzyl dimethyl stearyl ammonium chloride (BAC-C18)

Carbofuran, sum

Carbofuran
3-Hydroxy-Carbofuran

DDT, sum

DDE, pp-
DDT, pp-
DDD, pp-
DDT, op-

Dialkyl dimethyl ammonium chloride, sum (DDAC)

Dioctyl dimethyl ammonium chloride (DDAC-C8)
Didecyl dimethyl ammonium chloride (DDAC-C10)
Didodecyl dimethyl ammonium chloride (DDAC-C12)

Dieldrin, sum

Dieldrin
Aldrin

Dimethoate, sum

Dimethoate
Omethoate

Disulfoton, sum

Disulfoton
Disulfoton-sulfoxide
Disulfoton-sulfone

Endosulfan, sum

Endosulfan, alpha-
Endosulfan, beta-
Endosulfan-sulfat

Fenamiphos, sum

Fenamiphos
Fenamiphos-sulfoxide
Fenamiphos-sulfone

Fenthion, sum

Fenthion
Fenthion-sulfoxide
Fenthion-sulfone
Fenthion-oxon
Fenthion-oxon-sulfoxide
Fenthion-oxon-sulfone

Fipronil, sum

Fipronil
Fipronil-sulfone

Flonicamid, sum

Flonicamid
TFNG
TFNA

Fosetyl, sum

Fosetyl
Phosphonic acid

Glufosinate, sum

Glufosinate
MPPA
N-Acetyl-Glufosinate

Heptachlor, sum

Heptachlor
Heptachlor epoxide

Malathion, sum

Malathion
Malaoxon

Methiocarb, sum

Methiocarb
Methiocarb-sulfoxide
Methiocarb-sulfone

Methomyl, sum

Methomyl
Thiodicarb

Milbemectin

Milbemectin A3
Milbemectin A4

Oxydemeton-S-methyl, sum

Oxydemeton-methyl
Demeton-S-methyl-sulfone

Parathion-methyl ,sum

Parathion-methyl
Paraoxon-methyl

Phorate, sum

Phorate
Phorate-sulfone
Phorate-oxon
Phorate-oxon-sulfone

Phosmet, sum

Phosmet
Phosmet-oxon

Pirimicarb, sum

Pirimicarb
Desmethyl-pirimicarb

Prochloraz, total

Prochloraz
2,4,6-Trichlorphenol
BTS 44595
BTS 44596
BTS 9608
BTS 40348

Pyrethrum, Sum

Pyrethrin I
Pyrethrin II
Yessmolin I
Yessmolin II
Cinerin I
Cinerin II

Pyridate, sum

Pyridate
Pyridafol

Quintozen, sum

Quintozen
Pentachloranilin

Sethoxydim, total

Sethoxydim
Clethodim

Spirotetramat, sum

Spirotetramat,
Spirotetramat-Enol,
Spirotetramat, Ketohydroxy
Spirotetramat, Monohydroxy
Spirotetramat-Enol-Glycoside

Terbufos, sum

Terbufos
Terbufos-sulfone
Terbufos-sulfoxide

Tolylfluanid, sum

Tolylfluanid
DMST

Triadimefon & Triadimenol

Triadimefon
Triadimenol

Triflumizole

Triflumizole
Triflumizole Metabolite FM-6-1

 

 

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Report published on 31.08.2017 12:18:11