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Residues and Contaminants in Fresh Fruit from Conventional Cultivation, 2018

Report from a day in the lab

Kathi Hacker, Ellen Scherbaum

 

Summary

The analysis of fresh fruit from conventional cultivation shows almost no change in the residue situation. Every 14th sample was in violation due to an exceedance of the maximum level. Three of the analyzed samples contained pesticides in amounts that pose a health risk. Residues were found in 95 % of the samples. Washing the fruit with warm water before eating removes some of the residues.

 

Fresh Fruit.

Overview

In 2018 a total of 785 samples of fresh fruit from conventional cultivation were analyzed by CVUA Stuttgart for residues of over 750 different pesticides, pesticide metabolites, and contaminants. In all, 745 of these samples (95 %) contained residues from a total of 192 different pesticide substances (compared to 190 substances in 2017; 188 in 2016; 179 in 2015; 192 in 2014; 193 in 2013; 197 in 2012; and 184 in 2011). A total of 4,875 residues were found (according to the legal definition; see also Annexes 3 and 4).

There were exceedances of the maximum residue level (MRL) in 55 fruit samples (7.0 %). The rate of violations was similar to that of the previous year (7.0 % in 2017; 6.9 % in 2016; 5.2 % in 2015; 11 % in 2014; 4.8 % in 2013; 4.5 % in 2012; and 3.6 % in 2011). The rate of exceedances for chlorate lay at 2.4 % of the samples (2.9 % in 2017; 2.1 % in 2016; 1.6 % in 2015; 6.9 % in 2014).

The rate of detection for chlorate lay much lower than that for vegetables. When formal rejections due to chlorate are not included, the number of violations lies at 36 samples, with an MRL exceedance rate of 4.6 %.

Info Box

Maximum Residue Levels

Maximum residue levels (MRLs) are not toxicological endpoints or toxicological limits. They are derived from residue investigations carried out under realistic conditions. The expected residues are then compared with toxicological limit values, in order to ensure that lifelong or a one-time intake of the substance does not pose a health risk. Maximum residue levels regulate trade, and are not permitted to be exceeded.
Food containing residues above the MRL are not marketable; they may not be sold. Not every exceedance of an MRL poses a health risk, however. It is therefore important to make differentiated observations.

 

Federal Office of Consumer Protection and Food Safety (BVL) brochure: “Pflanzenschutzmittel – sorgfältig geprüft, verantwortungsvoll zugelassen”, November 2009

 

Results in Detail

All of the samples were routinely analyzed using the QuEChERS  multi-method and QuPPe method (for very polar substances; see also http://quppe.eu) for over 750 substances. Table 1 gives an overview of the analyzed fruit samples, itemized by country of origin.

 

Table 1: Pesticide residues in fruit samples from conventional cultivation, by country of origin (CVUAS, 2018)
Fresh Fruit
Domestic Samples
Other EU Countries
Third Countries
Unknown Origin
Total Samples
No. of Samples
191
296
264
34
785
With residues
185 (97 %)
283 (96 %)
245 (93 %)
32 (94 %)
745 (95 %)
Exceedances of MRL
10 (5 %)
18 (6 %)
25 (9 %)
2 (6 %)
55 (7 %)
Ave. quantity of pesticide (mg/kg)
3.1
2.5
1.8
1.7
2.4
Ave. quantity of pesticide, excluding fosetyl (sum), surface treatment agents, and bromide (mg/kg)*
0.44
0.35
0.43
0.44
0.40
Ave. no. substances per sample
6.5
5.9
5.1
6
5.8

MRL = Maximum Residue Level

* The comparatively high levels of fosetyl (sum), bromide and surface treatment agents (thiabendazole, imazalil and o-phenylphenol) strongly affect the average quantity of pesticides per sample. Therefore, the average amount is also provided without these substances.

 

The samples came from 40 different countries, although most were from Germany (191), Spain (181), Italy (76), South Africa (63), Turkey (39), Peru (26) and Chile (21).

 

In 2018, almost all of the fruit samples (95 % of 745) contained residues. According to the official definition of residues (see Annex 4), 192 different pesticide substances were detected; when all metabolites and contaminants are included, this comprises more than 200 individual substances.

 

An average of 5.8 different substances was detected per sample. Excluding fosetyl (sum), bromide, and the surface treatment agents thiabendazole, imazalil and ortho-phenylphenol, which are often found on the peel of citrus fruits and to some extent on stone and exotic fruits, the average amount of pesticide residues was 0.40 mg/kg.

 

Three of the analyzed fruit samples from conventional cultivation contained amounts that exhausted the ARfD established by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) PRIMo Model by 100 %:

  • Pineapple from Ghana with ethephone residues
  • Mango from the Ivory Coast with chlorpyrifos residues
  • Pear from Italy with nicotine residues

The pear sample with nicotine residues was determined to be unsuitable for human consumption, according to Article 14, Para. 2 b VO (EC) No. 178/2002.  (See also „Nicotine in Food – What Does Smoking Have To Do With It?“). Whether eating the pineapple and mango samples poses an acute health hazard is difficult to judge because, in accordance with the legally established definition of residues, these fruits must be analyzed together with their peels. A reliable risk assessment for the edible parts of the fruits is therefore difficult.

 

Info Box

Acute Reference Dose (ARfD)

For the evaluation of pesticides that have a high, acute toxicity and that can cause health damage after just a single or short-term intake, the Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) value is only appropriate to a limited extent. Since the ADI is derived from long-term studies, it is possibly inadequate as a measure of acute risk from residues in food. Therefore, in addition to the ADI value, a further exposure limit has been established, the so-called acute reference dose (ARfD). The World Health Organization defined the ARfD as the amount of a substance one can consume over the period of one day or in one meal without resulting in any discernible health risk. Other than for the ADI, the ARfD value is not determined for every pesticide, but only for such substances that, when taken in sufficient quantities, could cause damage to one’s health even after just one exposure.

 

EU Pesticides database

EFSA calculation model Pesticide Residue Intake Model “PRIMo”–rev.3

 

Table 2 shows an overview of the analytical results for different fruit groups.

 

Table 2: Residues in fruit samples from conventional cultivation, by type of fruit CVUAS, 2018)
Type of Fruit
No. of Samples
Samples with Residues
Samples with Multiple Residues
Samples > MRL
No. Findings > MRL
Substances exceeding the MRL **
Berries
219
212 (97 %)
204 (93 %)
15 (7 %)
15
Chlorate (7x); Fosetyl, sum (3x); Spinosad; Dodine; Acrinathrin; Nicotine; DEET
Exotic fruits
157
140 (89 %)
113 (72 %)
16 (10 %)
20
Chlorate (4x); Fosetyl, sum (4x); Ethephon (3x); Boscalid (2x); tau-Fluvalinate; Chlorpyrifos; Chlorpyrifos-methyl; Acetamiprid; Dithiocarbamates; Fenvalerate and Esfenvalerate, sum; Sulfoxaflor
Pome fruits
107
105 (98 %)
103 (96 %)
4 (4 %)
4
Chlorate; Chlorpropham; Nicotine; Chlormequatchloride
Stone fruits
193
189 (98 %)
180 (93 %)
8 (4 %)
8
Fosetyl, sum (4x); Chlorate; Dimethoate; DEET; Chlormequatchloride
Citrus fruits
109
99 (91 %)
98 (90 %)
12 (11 %)
12
Chlorate (6x); Dicofol; Chlorpyrifos; Chlorfenapyr; Glufosinate, sum; Nicotine; Fenvalerate and Esfenvalerate, sum
TOTAL
785
745 (95 %)
698 (89 %)
55 (7 %)
 
 

MRL = Maximum Residue Level

** Individual samples contained more than one substance exceeding the MRL

 

Citrus and exotic fruits contained the most exceedances of the MRL. Annex 1 lists the MRL exceedances in conventionally produced fresh fruits; Annexes 2 and 3 show the frequency distribution of the detected substances.

 

Presentation of Results for Specific Types of Fruit

Berries contained an average of 6.1different substances and 0.54 mg pesticide per kg (average quantity of pesticide excluding fosetyl (sum), surface treatment agents and bromide) (Table 3). In 2017, in comparison, berries contained an average of 7.2 different substances and an average of 0.60 pesticide per kg. These sensitive fruits are vulnerable to mold; in damp weather this can lead to increased use of fungicide. In 2018, however, the summer was nice and warm, as seen in the lower amounts of residues in the samples.

 

A total of 75 strawberry samples were analyzed; 24 from Germany and 45 from Spain. Residues were detected in all of the samples. The most frequently detected substances were trifloxystrobin, fosetyl (sum), fluopyram, cyprodinil and fludioxonil. Up to 15 different substances were found in one strawberry sample.

 

Table 3: Residues in berries from conventional cultivation (CVUAS, 2018)
Matrix
No. of Samples
Samples with Residues
Samples with Multiple Residues
Samples > MRL
Substances exceeding the MRL
Blackberry
17
16 (94 %)
15 (88 %)
2 (12 %)
Chlorate (2x)
Strawberry
75
75 (100 %)
72 (96 %)
7 (9 %)
Chlorate (5x); Acrinathrin;
Spinosad
Blueberry
30
25 (83 %)
23 (77 %)
2 (7 %)
DEET; Fosetyl, sum
Raspberry
20
20 (100 %)
19 (95 %)
1 (5 %)
Nicotine
Currant
26
26 (100 %)
26 (100 %)
2 (8 %)
Dodine; Fosetyl, sum
Gooseberry
7
7 (100 %)
7 (100 %)
1 (14 %)
Fosetyl, sum
Table grape
42
42 (100 %)
42 (100 %)
-
 
Lingonberry
1
1*
-
-
 
Sea buckthorn berry
1
0
-
-
 
TOTAL
219
212 (97 %)
204 (93 %)
15 (7 %)
 

MRL = Maximum Residue Level

* No percentage is given for sample sizes under 5

 

Pome fruits contained an average of 8.2 different substances and 0.44 mg pesticide per kg ((average quantity of pesticide excluding fosetyl (sum), surface treatment agents and bromide)).

 

Table 4: Residues in pome fruits from conventional cultivation (CVUAS, 2018)
Matrix
No. of Samples
Samples with Residues
Samples with Multiple Residues
Samples > MRL
Substances exceeding the MRL
Apple
51
50 (98 %)
50 (98 %)
1 (2 %)
Chlorpropham
Pear
48
47 (98 %)
47 (98 %)
3 (6 %)
Chlorate; Nicotine; Chlormequat chloride
Quince
4
4*
4
-
 
Medlar
4
4
2
-
 
TOTAL
107
105 (98 %)
103 (96 %)
4 (4 %)
 

MRL = Maximum Residue Level

* No percentage is given for sample sizes under 5

 

Conventionally produced apples and pears often contain pesticide residues.  A total of 51 apple samples were analyzed, 37 of which came from Germany. Only one German sample was free of any detectable residues. A further 48 pear samples were examined, 11 from Germany. Only one pear from Italy was residue free. The substances most often detected in pears and apples were captan (fungicide), chlorantraniliprol (insecticide) and phosphonic acid (fosetyl, sum; fungicide).

 

Stone fruits contained an average of 5.7 different substances and 0.29 mg pesticide per kg (average quantity of pesticide excluding fosetyl, sum; surface treatment agents; and bromide).

 

Table 5: Residues in stone fruits from conventional cultivation (CVUAS, 2018)
Matrix
No. of Samples
Samples with Residues
Samples with Multiple Residues
Samples > MRL
Substances exceeding the MRL
Apricot
31
31 (100 %)
30 (97 %)
-
 
Avocado
15
13 (87 %)
11 (73 %)
1 (7 %)
Chlormequat chloride
Mirabelle
3
2*
2
1
Fosetyl, sum
Nectarine
27
27 (100 %)
26 (96 %)
-
 
Peach
21
21 (100 %)
21 (100 %)
-
 
Plum
70
69 (99 %)
65 (93 %)
3 (4 %)
Fosetyl, sum (2x); DEET
Sweet Cherry
23
23 (100 %)
22 (96 %)
3 (13 %)
Chlorate; Dimethoate; Fosetyl, sum
Sour Cherry
3
3
3
-
 
TOTAL
193
189 (98 %)
180 (93 %)
8 (4 %)
 

MRL = Maximum Residue Level

* No percentage is given for sample sizes under 5

 

Citrus fruits contained an average of 6.4 different substances and 0.32 mg pesticide per kg (average quantity of pesticide excluding fosetyl, sum; surface treatment agents; and bromide) (Table 6).
When the surface treatment substances thiabendazol, imazalil and orthophenylphenol, often applied to the peel of citrus fruits in large amounts, are included in the calculation, the average comes to 1.3 mg pesticide per kg.

 

Table 6: Residues in citrus fruits from conventional cultivation (CVUAS, 2018)
Matrix
No. of Samples
Samples with Residues
Samples with Multiple Residues
Samples > MRL
Substances exceeding the MRL
Clementine
21
20 (95 %)
20 (95 %)
2 (10 %)
Chlorate (2x)
Grapefruit
27
26 (96 %)
26 (96 %)
2 (7 %)
Chlorate; Fenvalerate and Esfenvalerate, sum
Kumquat
3
0*
-
-
 
Lime
10
10 (100 %)
10 (100 %)
3 (30 %)
Chlorate (2x); Chlorfenapyr
Mandarine
12
11 (92 %)
11 (92 %)
2 (17 %)
Chlorate; Nicotine
Orange
22
18 (82 %)
18 (82 %)
1 (5 %)
Dicofol
Pomelo
5
5 (100 %)
5 (100 %)
-
 
Satsuma
1
1
1
-
 
Sweetie
1
1
1
-
 
Lemon
7
7 (100 %)
6 (86 %)
2 (29 %)
Chlorpyrifos; Glufosinate, sum
TOTAL
109
99 (91 %)
98 (90 %)
12 (11 %)
 

MRL = Maximum Residue Level

* No percentage is given for sample sizes under 5

 

Exotic fruits contained an average of 3.3 different substances and 0.37 mg pesticide per kg (excluding fosetyl, sum; surface treatment substances and bromide). Fortunately, the situation regarding pomegranates improved: last year 36 % of the pomegranates (mostly from Turkey) were in violation for exceeding the MRL. In 2018 this rate was significantly lower, at 13 %.

 

Table 7: Residues in exotic fruits from conventional cultivation (CVUAS, 2018)
Matrix
No. of Samples
Samples with Residues
Samples with Multiple Residues
Samples > MRL
Substances exceeding the MRL**
Pineapple
16
16 (100 %)
16 (100 %)
2 (13 %)
Ethephon (2x)
Banana
21
21 (100 %)
21 (100 %)
1 (5 %)
Chlorate
Date
1
1*
1
-
 
Fig
8
4 (50 %)
1 (13 %)
1 (13 %)
Dithiocarbamates
Pomegranate
32
31 (97 %)
28 (88 %)
4 (13 %)
Boscalid (2x); Fosetyl, sum (2x); Acetamiprid; Fenvalerate and Esfenvalerate, sum; Sulfoxaflor; tau-Fluvalinate
Persimmon
8
7 (88 %)
4 (50 %)
-
 
Cactus fruit
2
2
-
-
 
Cape gooseberry
1
1
1
-
 
Carambola
2
2
2
-
 
Kiwi
16
16 (100 %)
11 (69 %)
1 (6 %)
Chlorpyrifos-methyl
Litchi
2
2
1
1
Chlorate
Mango
26
25 (96 %)
20 (77 %)
4 (15 %)
Chlorate; Chlorpyrifos; Ethephon; Fosetyl, sum
Maracuja
11
6 (55 %)
5 (45 %)
1 (9 %)
Chlorate
Papaya
6
3 (50 %)
1 (17 %)
1 (17 %)
Fosetyl, sum
Rhubarb
5
3 (60 %)
1 (20 %)
-
 
TOTAL
157
140 (89 %)
113 (72 %)
16 (10 %)
 

MRL = Maximum Residue Level

* No percentage is given for sample sizes under 5

**Individual samples contained more than one substance exceeding the MRL

 

Multiple Residues

Residues from multiple pesticides were also detected in a large number of fruit samples in 2018: 89 % of the 698 samples contained residues of two or more substances (91 % in 2017; 90 % in 2016; 89 % in 2015). Illustration 1 depicts the multiple residues in various types of fruit in 2018.

 

The highest number of substances was found in a sample of table grapes from India, with 20 different substances, followed by sweet cherries from Turkey, with 19 substances.

 

The residue findings are strongly dependent on the type of sample and their country of origin. Since the particular focus and risk-oriented questions are different each year, the results from one year cannot be seen as representative of the general situation.

 

Illustration 1: Multiple residues in various types of fruit (CVUAS, 2018).

Illustration 1: Multiple residues in various types of fruit (CVUAS, 2018)

 

When making comparisons of the number of pesticide substances used, one must consider that the individual cultures are grown in different climate zones, and are thus exposed to different degrees of pressure from pests. It is therefore necessary to take individual, often different measures of plant protection.

 

Substances with special features

Phosphonic Acid

Phosphonic acid residues can result from the usage of the fungicidal plant protectors fosetyl and phosphonic acid (allowed in Germany in fruit and vegetable farming, such as grapes, blackberries and strawberries), as well as from the earlier usage of plant strengtheners (so-called leaf fertilizers). A legal maximum has been determined for the sum of fosetyl and phosphonic acid, as well as their salts.

 

Fully 47 % (372 samples) of all the analyzed fruit samples from conventional cultivation were detected with phosphonic acid, calculated as fosetyl, sum, (in German blackberries) in amounts up to 48 mg/kg. Fosetyl per se was only detected in four samples (2x table grapes, strawberries and blackberries), whereby phosphonic acid was always found in these samples (see Table 8). Violations occurred in 11 samples (1.4 %) due to exceedances of the maximum for fosetyl, sum (see Annex 1).

 

The average rate of pesticide per sample is strongly influenced by the comparatively high average amount of fosetyl residues. Therefore, Table 1 presents the average rates of pesticides per sample both with and without fosetyl (sum).

 

Info Box

Phosphonic Acid and Fosetyl

Both fosetyl and phosphonic acid are fungicides that are permitted for use in the EU, and fall under the applications area of Reg. (EC) No. 396/2005, regardless of their path of entry.


In addition to the use of a fungicide, another feasible means of exposure could have been via leaf fertilizers that contained phosphonates (salts of phosphonic acid). The “new” categorization of phosphonic acids as a fungicide precludes this application, however. There are some indications that plants retain the phosphonic acids, only eliminating them over a period of some years.

 

Table 8: Phosphonic acid and fosetyl residues in fruit from conventional cultivation (CVUAS 2018)
Matrix Phosphonic Acid (mg/kg) Fosetyl (mg/kg) Fosetyl, sum (mg/kg)
Blackberry (13x) 0.3 – 35.5 0.72 0.40 – 47.7
Strawberry (41x) 0.057 – 30.3 0.030 0.077 – 40.7
Blueberry (12x) 0.052 – 7.1   0.070 – 9.5
Raspberry (12x) 0.089 – 11.1   0.12 – 14.9
Currant (2x) 0.062 – 4.6   0.083 – 6.2
Gooseberry (2x) 0.072 – 5.1   0.097 – 6.8
Table wine grape (33x) 0.055 – 29.4 0.033 – 0.097 0.074 – 39.5
Pineapple (16x) 0.17 – 13.8   0.23 – 18.5
Banana 0.13   0.17
Fig 0.28   0.38
Pomegranate (16x) 0.096 – 6.6   0.13 – 8.9
Persimmon 0.32   0.43
Karambole 0.12   0.16
Kiwi (9x) 0.23 – 7.1   0.31 – 9.5
Mango (5x) 0.067 – 1.8   0.090 – 2.4
Maracuja (4x) 0.056 – 0.58   0.075 – 0.78
Papaya 2.4   3.2
Apple (37x) 0.077 – 10.4   0.10 – 14.0
Pear (36x) 0.052 – 32.8   0.070 – 44.1
Medlar (2x) 0.056 – 0.13   0.075 – 0.17
Apricot (5x) 0.054 – 0.89   0.073 – 1.2
Avocado (12x) 0.12 – 20.0   0.16 – 26.9
Mirabelle 2.6   3.5
Nectarine (6x) 0.076 – 1.5   0.10 – 2.0
Peach (5x) 0.048 – 0.25   0.064 – 0.34
Plum (14x) 0.053 – 2.3   0.071 – 3.1
Sour Cherry 0.78   1.0
Sweet Cherry (11x) 0.062 – 1.5   0.083 – 2.1
Clementine (18x) 0.099 – 5.4   0.13 – 7.3
Grapefruit (19x) 0.062 – 5.3   0.083 – 7.1
Lime (8x) 0.054 – 3.8   0.073 – 5.1
Mandarine (8x) 0.093 – 6.6   0.12 – 8.9
Orange (13x) 0.068 – 6.3   0.091 – 8.5
Satsumas 0.12   0.16
Lemon (5x) 0.083 – 7.1   0.11 – 9.5

 

Chlorate

The presence of chlorate residues in plant-based foods can have causes other than its application as an herbicide (see Info Box). In fruit, however, chlorate findings play a very minor role in comparison to vegetables (see Illustration 4). Just 19 samples (2.4 %) were in violation due to an exceedance of the MRL for chlorate; for vegetables it was 18 % in this reporting year.

 

Info Box

Chlorate

Chlorates are effective as both herbicides and biocides. Since 2008, however, chlorate is no longer authorized for use as a pesticide* in the EU. Sodium chlorate may also no longer be used in biocide products.

 

The definition for „pesticide residues“ in Regulation (EC) Nr. 396/2005 also encompasses residues from pesticidal substances in food (including substances no longer authorized) that have pathways other than from the use of plant protectors (so-called dual-use substances), such as chlorate in food. Chlorate is thereby covered by the EU-wide valid default MRL of 0.01 mg/kg, in accordance with Reg. (EC) Nr. 396/2005. In December 2017 in Germany maximum values were determined for the treatment of drinking water when the disinfection can’t be otherwise guaranteed: 70 µg/L chlorate for long-term application and 200 µg/L chlorate for a short-term dosage.**

 

The presence of chlorate in food can result not only from its use as a pesticide, but also due to environmental pollution (contaminated rain- or irrigation water and soil), or as a residual of food production techniques, including methods used in farming, processing, preparation, or treatment.  The application of biocides, from which chlorate can result, is another possible source of contamination. In general, chlorate can be formed as a by-product of the disinfection of drinking/ industrial water with chlorine gas, hypochlorite, or chlorine dioxide.

 

Chlorate inhibits, reversibly, the intake of iodine into the thyroid gland and can cause unwanted health effects, especially in sensitive people such as children, pregnant women, or people with thyroid dysfunction. In addition to affecting thyroid function, chlorate can also damage the erythrocytes (formation of methaemoglobin, haemolysis)***.

 

The member states are carrying out a monitoring program to determine the degree of food and drinking water contamination, in order to provide data for a toxicological evaluation by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). Specific residue MRLs will then be established based on this information.

 

* 10 November 2008 decision of the Commision regarding the non-inclusion of chlorate in Annex I of the RL 91/414/EWG of the Council and the repeal of authorization for pesticides containing this substance (ABl. L307/7 from 18.11.2008)

** Chlorate in drinking water:
19. Bekanntmachung der Liste der Aufbereitungsstoffe und Desinfektionsverfahren gemäß § 11 der Trinkwasserverordnung

*** Federal Institute for Risk Assessment (BfR), Recommendations of the BfR for health-based assessment of chlorate residues in food, from 12 May 20144, accessed on 6 Feb. 2019

 

The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) derived an acute reference dose (ARfD) for chlorate of 0.036 mg/kg bodyweight. Applying EFSA’s EU-based PRIMo-Model for young children and a variability factor of 1, none of the samples exceeded the toxicological reference value. There was, therefore, no acute health risk. Nevertheless, the Federal Institute for Risk Assessment (BfR) recommends continuing efforts to reduce the possible entries of chlorate into the food chain and the resulting risk to consumers [1]. Analyses of chlorate residues will continue in 2019.  

 

Photo Credits

CVUA Stuttgart, Pesticide laboratory

 

References

[1] BfR, Der Eintrag von Chlorat in die Nahrungskette sollte reduziert werden; Aktualisierte Stellungnahme Nr. 007/2018 des BfR vom 15. Februar 2018 (aufgerufen am 06.02.2019)

 

Annexes

Annex 1: Substances with MRL exceedances, by type of fruit and country of origin (CVUAS, 2018)
 Substance Fruits with MRL Exceedances
Acetamiprid Pomegranate (Turkey)
Acrinathrin Strawberry (Spain)
Boscalid Pomegranate (Turkey 2x)
Chlorate Passion fruit (South Africa); Lime (Mexico 2x); Grapefruit (Spain); Lychee (South Africa); Strawberry (Spain 4x, Germany); Clementine (Spain 2x); Mandarine (Spain); Blackberry (Spain, Not Specified); Banana (Colombia); Cherry (Spain); Mango (USA); Pear (Portugal)
Chlorfenapyr Lime (Brazil)
Chlormequatchloride, sum Pear (Germany); Avocado (Spain)
Chlorpropham Apple (Germany)
Chlorpyrifos Lemon (Turkey); Mango (Africa)
Chlorpyrifos-methyl Kiwi (Italy)
DEET Blueberry (Poland); Plum (Germany)
Dicofol Orange (Spain)
Dimethoate Cherry (Turkey)
Dithiocarbamates Figs (Brazil)
Dodine Currant (Germany)
Ethephon Pineapple (Dominican Republic, Ghana); Mango (Egypt)
Fenvalerate and
Esfenvalerate, sum
Grapefruit (Turkey); Pomegranate (Turkey)
Fosetyl, sum Plum (Turkey, Moldavia); Mango (Peru); Papaya (Brazil); Pomegranate (Peru, Turkey); Cherry (Turkey); Blueberry (Germany); Currant (Germany); Gooseberry (Germany); Mirabelle (Germany)
Glufosinate, sum Lemon (South Africa)
Nicotine Pear (Italy); Mandarine (Spain); Raspberry (Germany)
Spinosad Strawberry (Not Specified)
Sulfoxaflor Pomegranate (Turkey)
Tau-Fluvalinate Pomegranate (Turkey)

 

Annex 2: Frequency of detection of the most important substances* for fresh fruit, by type of fruit, as percentage all analyzed samples (CVUAS, 2018)

Frequency of detection of the most important substances for fresh fruit as percentage all analyzed samples (CVUAS, 2018)

 

Frequency of detection of the most important substances for berries as percentage all analyzed samples (CVUAS, 2018).

 

Frequency of detection of the most important substances for pome fruits as percentage all analyzed samples (CVUAS, 2018).

 

Frequency of detection of the most important substances for stone fruits as percentage all analyzed samples (CVUAS, 2018).

 

Frequency of detection of the most important substances for citrus fruits as percentage all analyzed samples (CVUAS, 2018).

 

Frequency of detection of the most important substances for exotic fruits as percentage all analyzed samples (CVUAS, 2018).

*Corresponding to the valid residue definition; see Annex 4

A = Acaricide; B = Bactericide; F = Fungicide; H = Herbicide; I = Insecticide; M = Metabolite; G = Growth Regulator  

 

Annex 3: Frequency of residue findings of plant protection substances in fresh fruit from conventional production (CVUAS, 2018)
Pesticides and Metabolites
Number of Findings
mg/kg
< 0.01
< 0.05
< 0.2
< 1
< 5
< 20
> 20
Max.
Fosetyl, sum
372
0
0
71
108
160
18
15
47.7
Fludioxonil
274
97
32
56
72
17
0
0
3.9
Boscalid
178
63
58
32
21
4
0
0
2
Cyprodinil
163
77
29
26
27
4
0
0
1.9
Fluopyram
145
54
42
38
11
0
0
0
0.66
Trifloxystrobin
142
53
53
23
13
0
0
0
0.52
Tebuconazole
132
68
35
25
4
0
0
0
0.74
Chloranthraniliprole
111
77
31
3
0
0
0
0
0.19
Pyrimethanil
110
60
15
11
20
4
0
0
3.7
Myclobutanil
109
62
29
11
7
0
0
0
0.85
Pyraclostrobin
109
49
38
17
5
0
0
0
0.52
Acetamiprid
107
61
37
9
0
0
0
0
0.15
Captan
100
19
32
23
22
4
0
0
2.1
Imazalil
94
7
6
7
34
40
0
0
3.5
Azoxystrobin
90
44
12
17
17
0
0
0
0.96
Thiacloprid
90
54
32
4
0
0
0
0
0.072
Lambda-Cyhalothrin
85
52
29
4
0
0
0
0
0.12
Imazalil met. FK411
77
29
32
14
2
0
0
0
0.39
Chlorate
73
51
19
2
1
0
0
0
0.28
Difenoconazole
73
62
7
4
0
0
0
0
0.091
Spinosad
68
31
21
9
6
1
0
0
1.2
Pyriproxyfen
64
39
22
3
0
0
0
0
0.15
Thiabendazole
62
23
5
11
12
11
0
0
3.2
Chlorpyrifos
61
38
18
4
1
0
0
0
0.22
Pirimicarb
61
41
13
6
1
0
0
0
0.22
Acetamiprid met. IM-2-1
60
60
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.009
Imidacloprid
60
43
14
2
1
0
0
0
0.97
Chlorpyrifos-methyl
59
31
21
6
1
0
0
0
0.22
Spirotetramat, sum
59
34
21
3
1
0
0
0
0.26
Dithianon
58
11
29
11
6
1
0
0
1.5
Carbendazim, sum
45
30
13
2
0
0
0
0
0.098
Cypermethrin, sum
44
23
12
9
0
0
0
0
0.14
Iprodione
44
27
9
4
2
2
0
0
1.4
Dimethomorph
43
26
7
3
5
2
0
0
1.1
Fenhexamid
42
13
10
6
12
1
0
0
2.5
Cyprodinil met. CGA304075
41
20
12
7
2
0
0
0
0.26
Etofenprox
41
16
10
12
3
0
0
0
0.32
Imidacloprid, Olefin-
40
32
6
2
0
0
0
0
0.18
Penconazole
40
31
7
2
0
0
0
0
0.081
Indoxacarb
36
23
8
5
0
0
0
0
0.12
Methoxyfenozide
35
19
15
1
0
0
0
0
0.078
Deltamethrin
34
22
12
0
0
0
0
0
0.032
Prochloraz, sum
34
9
2
9
10
4
0
0
3.7
Thiabendazole-5-hydroxy
33
24
8
1
0
0
0
0
0.05
Hexythiazox
32
26
5
1
0
0
0
0
0.18
Fluopyram-Benzamide
31
30
1
0
0
0
0
0
0.012
Propiconazole
30
19
5
1
2
3
0
0
1.4
2.4-D, sum
26
15
4
5
2
0
0
0
0.28
Pendimethalin
26
25
1
0
0
0
0
0
0.015
Flonicamid, sum
25
21
4
0
0
0
0
0
0.027
Gibberellic acid
25
7
7
8
3
0
0
0
0.24
Dithiocarbamates
24
0
1
14
7
2
0
0
4
Fenbuconazole
24
14
7
3
0
0
0
0
0.15
Dodine
23
17
5
1
0
0
0
0
0.13
Ethephon
23
0
11
8
2
2
0
0
4.5
Quinoxyfen
23
8
4
10
1
0
0
0
0.3
Bifenthrin
22
12
7
3
0
0
0
0
0.075
o-Phenylphenol
22
0
20
0
2
0
0
0
0.6
Tebufenpyrad
22
10
8
4
0
0
0
0
0.18
Spirodiclofen
21
14
7
0
0
0
0
0
0.031
Abamectin, sum
20
16
3
1
0
0
0
0
0.082
Tebufenozide
19
11
5
3
0
0
0
0
0.1
Metalaxyl (-M)
17
11
2
3
1
0
0
0
0.62
Buprofezin
16
6
7
3
0
0
0
0
0.13
Pirimicarb, desmethyl-
16
13
3
0
0
0
0
0
0.038
Boscalid met. M510F01
15
10
5
0
0
0
0
0
0.036
Glufosinate, sum
15
0
11
3
1
0
0
0
0.45
Bifenazate, sum
14
1
7
3
3
0
0
0
0.35
Cyproconazole
14
13
1
0
0
0
0
0
0.018
Fenoxycarb
14
13
1
0
0
0
0
0
0.035
Fenpyroximate
14
8
6
0
0
0
0
0
0.044
Clothianidin
13
13
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.008
Metrafenone
13
5
2
1
4
1
0
0
1.5
Trimethylsulfonium cation
13
9
3
1
0
0
0
0
0.067
Fenpropimorph
12
10
2
0
0
0
0
0
0.019
Triclopyr
12
11
0
1
0
0
0
0
0.09
Ethephon met. HEPA
11
0
7
2
2
0
0
0
0.55
Ethirimol
11
8
3
0
0
0
0
0
0.032
Kresoxim-methyl
11
6
5
0
0
0
0
0
0.036
Phosmet, sum
11
4
6
1
0
0
0
0
0.086
Spinetoram
11
10
1
0
0
0
0
0
0.015
Chlormequatchloride, sum
10
4
4
0
2
0
0
0
0.72
Fluxapyroxad
10
9
0
1
0
0
0
0
0.096
Omethoate
10
7
3
0
0
0
0
0
0.045
Thiamethoxam
10
8
2
0
0
0
0
0
0.025
Thiophanat-methyl
10
6
4
0
0
0
0
0
0.035
DEET
9
7
0
2
0
0
0
0
0.12
Emamectin B1a/B1b
9
8
1
0
0
0
0
0
0.011
Forchlorfenuron
9
9
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.004
Pirimicarb-desamido
9
8
1
0
0
0
0
0
0.015
Cyflufenamid
8
5
3
0
0
0
0
0
0.029
Etoxazole
8
5
3
0
0
0
0
0
0.02
Fluopicolide
8
6
1
1
0
0
0
0
0.19
Cyfluthrin
7
5
2
0
0
0
0
0
0.012
Flutriafol
7
6
1
0
0
0
0
0
0.035
Folpet
7
7
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.007
Malathion, sum
7
5
2
0
0
0
0
0
0.018
Proquinazid
7
2
4
1
0
0
0
0
0.054
Pyridaben
7
4
3
0
0
0
0
0
0.026
Sulfoxaflor
7
5
1
1
0
0
0
0
0.057
Ametoctradin
6
4
2
0
0
0
0
0
0.023
Bupirimate
6
3
1
2
0
0
0
0
0.15
Chlorothalonil
6
3
1
2
0
0
0
0
0.15
Iprodione met. RP30228
6
5
1
0
0
0
0
0
0.035
Metalaxyl met. CGA94689
6
6
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.005
Spiroxamine
6
4
1
1
0
0
0
0
0.093
tau-Fluvalinate
6
4
1
1
0
0
0
0
0.058
Cyazofamid
5
2
1
2
0
0
0
0
0.081
Fenpyrazamine
5
2
0
2
1
0
0
0
0.38
Myclobutanil met. RH9090
5
3
2
0
0
0
0
0
0.041
Nicotine
5
1
4
0
0
0
0
0
0.022
Tetraconazole
5
4
1
0
0
0
0
0
0.013
Benzyladenine
4
4
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.002
Bromopropylate
4
4
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.006
Diflubenzuron
4
4
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.007
MCPA
4
4
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.005
Metalaxyl met. CGA108905
4
3
1
0
0
0
0
0
0.033
Milbemectin, sum
4
4
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.009
Penthiopyrad
4
1
2
1
0
0
0
0
0.059
Piperonyl butoxide
4
0
1
1
2
0
0
0
0.38
Triadimenol
4
4
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.007
Triflumizole, sum
4
1
2
1
0
0
0
0
0.079
Triflumuron
4
4
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.008
Acrinathrin
3
2
1
0
0
0
0
0
0.023
Chlorfenapyr
3
2
1
0
0
0
0
0
0.014
Cyantraniliprole
3
0
2
1
0
0
0
0
0.056
Diazinon
3
1
2
0
0
0
0
0
0.019
Dimethoate
3
2
0
1
0
0
0
0
0.063
Fenpropidin
3
3
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.002
Fenvalerate and Esfenvalerate, sum
3
0
3
0
0
0
0
0
0.04
Fluazifop
3
3
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.005
Metalaxyl met. CGA107955
3
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
0.054
Novaluron
3
3
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.006
Propyzamide
3
3
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.002
Pyrethrins
3
1
2
0
0
0
0
0
0.018
Ametryn
2
2
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.004
BAC (n=8-18)
2
0
2
0
0
0
0
0
0.014
Chloridazon, sum
2
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0.015
Chlorpropham
2
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0.02
Clofentezine
2
2
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.008
Cyazofamid met. CCIM
2
2
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.004
Dicloran
2
2
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.002
Diflufenican
2
2
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.004
Dioxacarb
2
2
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.001
Diphenylamine
2
0
2
0
0
0
0
0
0.033
Diuron
2
2
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.004
Endosulfan, sum
2
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0.016
Famoxadone
2
1
0
1
0
0
0
0
0.17
Fenazaquin
2
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0.022
Fenbutatin oxide
2
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0.012
Fenthion, sum
2
2
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.004
Flusilazole
2
2
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.002
Formetanate hydrochloride
2
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0.014
Iprovalicarb
2
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0.016
Lufenuron
2
2
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.002
Mandipropamid
2
2
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.001
Methiocarb, sum
2
2
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.008
Spiromesifen
2
0
0
1
1
0
0
0
0.52
1-NAD and 1-NAA, sum
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.005
Amitrole
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.008
Benalaxyl
1
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0.017
Bromuconazole
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.005
Carbanilide
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.002
Chlorothalonil-4-hydroxy
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.001
DDAC (n=8, 10, 12)
1
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0.028
Dicamba
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.005
Dichlorprop
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.004
Dicofol
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0.11
Dimethenamid, sum
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.002
Epoxiconazole
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.002
ETU
1
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0.021
Fluazinam
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.002
Flubendiamide
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.001
Haloxyfop
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.002
Hexazinone
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.003
Icaridin
1
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0.024
Mepanipyrim
1
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0.22
Mepanipyrim met. M31
1
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0.03
Metalaxyl met.CGA67869
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.001
Oxamyl-oxime
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0.1
Oxyfluorfen
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.001
Paclobutrazol
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.009
Pentachlorphenol
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.002
Permethrin
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.002
Propamocarb
1
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0.01
Pymetrozine
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.002
Pyraclofos
1
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0.27
Quintozene, sum
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0.1
Terbutylazine-desethyl
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.001
Trichlamide
1
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0.011
Trifloxystrobin met. CGA321112
1
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0.017
Trinexapac
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.003
                   

 

Annex 4: Substances and metabolites included in the residue definition are only included as the sum in the calculation (one residue)
Parameter Included in the residue definition and analytically recorded
1-Naphthylacetic acid, sum 1-Naphthylacetamide
1-Naphthylacetic acid
Abamectin Avermectin B1a
Avermectin B1b
8,9-Z-Avermectin B1a
Aldicarb, sum Aldicarb
Aldicarb-sulfoxide
Aldicarb-sulfone
Amitraz, sum Amitraz
BTS 27271
Benzalkonium chloride, sum  (BAC) Benzyldimethyloctylammonium chloride (BAC-C8)
Benzyldimethyldecylammonium chloride (BAC-C10)
Benzyldodecyldimethylammonium chloride (BAC-C12)
Benzyldimethyltetradecylammonium chloride (BAC-C14
Benzylhexadecyldimethylammonium chloride (BAC-C16)
Benzyldimethylstearylammonium chloride (BAC-C18)
Carbofuran, sum Carbofuran
3-Hydroxy-Carbofuran
Chloridazon, sum Chloridazon
Chloridazon-desphenyl
DDT, sum DDE, pp-
DDT, pp-
DDD, pp-
DDT, op-
Didecyldimethylammonium chloride, sum (DDAC) Dioctyldimethylammonium chloride (DDAC-C8)
Didecyldimethylammonium chloride (DDAC-C10)
Didodecyldimethylammonium chloride (DDAC-C12)
Dieldrin, sum Dieldrin
Aldrin
Disulfoton, sum Disulfoton
Disulfoton-sulfoxide
Disulfoton-sulfone
Endosulfan, sum Endosulfan, alpha-
Endosulfan, beta-
Endosulfan-sulfate
Fenamiphos, sum Fenamiphos
Fenamiphos-sulfoxide
Fenamiphos-sulfone
Fenthion, sum Fenthion
Fenthion-sulfoxide
Fenthion-sulfone
Fenthion-oxon
Fenthion-oxon-sulfoxide
Fenthion-oxon-sulfone
Fipronil, sum Fipronil
Fipronil-sulfone
Flonicamid, sum Flonicamid
TFNG
TFNA
Fosetyl, sum Fosetyl
Phosphonic acid
Glufosinate, sum Glufosinate
MPP
N-Acetyl-Glufosinate (NAG)
Heptachlor, sum Heptachlor
Heptachlor epoxide
Malathion, sum Malathion
Malaoxon
Methiocarb, sum Methiocarb
Methiocarb-sulfoxide
Methiocarb-sulfone
Milbemectin Milbemectin A3
Milbemectin A4
Oxydemeton-S-methyl, sum Oxydemeton-methyl
Demeton-S-methyl-sulfone
Parathion-methyl, sum Parathion-methyl
Paraoxon-methyl
Phorate, sum Phorate
Phorate-sulfone
Phorate-oxon
Phorate-oxon-sulfone
Phosmet, sum Phosmet
Phosmet-oxon
Prochloraz, sum Prochloraz
2,4,6-Trichlorphenol
BTS 44595
BTS 44596
BTS 9608
BTS 40348
Pyrethrum, sum Pyrethrin I
Pyrethrin II
Jasmolin I
Jasmolin II
Cinerin I
Cinerin II
Pyridate, sum Pyridate
Pyridafol
Quintozene, sum Quintozene
Pentachloro-aniline
Sethoxydim, sum Sethoxydim
Clethodim
Spirotetramat, sum Spirotetramat,
Spirotetramat-enol,
Spirotetramat,-ketohydroxy
Spirotetramat,-monohydroxy
Spirotetramat-enol-glykoside
Tolylfluanid, sum Tolylfluanid
DMST
Triflumizole, sum Triflumizole
FM-6-1

 

Translated by: Catherine Leiblein

 

Report published on 25.03.2019 10:13:20

Chemisches und Veterinäruntersuchungsamt Stuttgart
Postfach 1206 · 70702 Fellbach · Germany
☎ +49 (0)711 / 34 26 12 34

 Kleines Landeswappen von Baden-Württemberg.