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Residues and Contaminants in Fresh Fruit from Conventional Cultivation, 2019

Ein Bericht aus unserem Laboralltag

Ellen Scherbaum, Nadine Korte und Kathi Hacker

 

Summary

Our analysis of conventionally cultivated fresh fruit from 2019 shows an improvement over last year in terms of the residue situation. Although the frequency of pesticide detection (95 % of samples) and the levels therein were comparable, there were fewer cases of maximum residue exceedances, and these often concerned contaminants rather than pesticides. Three of the analyzed samples contained pesticides in amounts that posed a health risk. Our general tip: wash the fruit with warm water before eating, as this removes some of the residues.

 

Photo Fresh Fruit.

Overview

In 2019 a total of 753 samples of fresh fruit from conventional cultivation were analyzed by CVUA Stuttgart for residues of over 750 different pesticides, pesticide metabolites, and contaminants. In all, 718 of these samples (95 %) contained residues from a total of 190 different pesticide substances (compared to 192 substances in 2018; 190 in 2017; 188 in 2016; 179 in 2015; and 192 in 2014). A total of 4,256 residues were found (according to the legal definition; see also Annexes 3 and 4).

 

There were exceedances of the maximum residue level (MRL) in 43 fruit samples (5.7 %). This rate of violations was lower than that of the previous year (7 % in 2018; 7 % in 2017; 6.9 % in 2016; 5.2 % in 2015; and 11 % in 2014).

The rate of exceedances for chlorate lay at 2.7 % of the samples (2.4 % in 2018; 2.9 % in 2017; 2.1 % in 2016; 1.6 % in 2015; and 6.9 % in 2014). This rate was much lower for fruit than for vegetables (14 %). When formal rejections exclude those for chlorate the number drops by almost half, to 23, with an MRL exceedance rate of 3.1 %, lower than in the previous year (4.6 %).

 

Info Box

Maximum Residue Levels

Maximum residue levels (MRLs) are not toxicological endpoints or limit values. They are derived from residue investigations carried out under realistic conditions. The expected residues are then compared with toxicological limit values, in order to ensure that neither a lifelong nor a one-time intake of the substance poses a health risk.

 

Maximum residue levels regulate trade and must not be exceeded. Food containing residues above the MRL are not marketable, hence they may not be sold. Not every exceedance of an MRL poses a health risk, however. It is important, therefore, to make differentiated observations.

 

Federal Office of Consumer Protection and Food Safety (BVL) brochure. Plant protection substances – carefully checked, responsibly authorized.
November 2009

 

Detailed Results

All of the samples were routinely analyzed using the QuEChERS multi-method and the QuPPe method (for very polar substances; see also http://quppe.eu) for over 750 substances. Table 1 gives an overview of the analyzed fruit samples, itemized by country of origin.

 

Table 1: Pesticide residues in fruit samples from conventional cultivation, by country of origin (CVUAS, 2019)
Fresh Fruit
Domestic Samples
Other EU Countries
Third Countries
Unknown Origin
Total Samples
No. of Samples
191
255
286
22
753
With residues
182 (96 %)
243 (95 %)
273 (95 %)
20 (91 %)
718 (95 %)
Exceedances of MRL
5 (3 %)
13 (5 %)
23 (8 %)
2 (9 %)
43 (6 %)
Ave. quantity of pesticide (mg/kg)
4.3
2.4
2.0
4.4
2.8
Ave. quantity of pesticide, excluding fosetyl (sum), surface treatment agents, and bromide (mg/kg)*
0.46
0.57
0.35
0.23
0.45
Ave. no. substances per sample
6.2
6.0
5.1
4.6
5.7

* The comparatively high levels of fosetyl (sum), bromide and surface treatment agents (thiabendazole, imazalil, prochloraz and o-phenylphenol) strongly affect the average quantity of pesticides per sample. Therefore, the average amount is also provided without these substances.

 

The samples came from 44 different countries, although most were from Germany (190), Spain (154), Italy (75), South Africa (61), Peru (25), Brazil (24) and Chile (22).

 

The year 2019 saw 718 (95 %) of the fruit samples with residues. According to the official definition of residues (see Annex 4), 190 different pesticide substances were detected.

 

An average of 5.7 different substances was detected per sample. The average amount of pesticide residues was 0.45 mg/kg, excluding fosetyl (sum), bromide, and the surface treatment agents thiabendazole, imazalil, prochloraz and ortho-phenylphenol, which are mainly found on the peel of citrus fruits and to some extent on stone and exotic fruits.

 

Three of the analyzed fruit samples from conventional cultivation contained amounts that exhausted the ARfD established by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) PRIMo Model by 100 %:

  • mango from Peru with omethoate residues
  • mango of unknown origin with nicotine residues
  • table grapes of unknown origin with nicotine residues

 

The table grape sample with nicotine residues was determined to be unsuitable for human consumption, according to Article 14, No. 2 b Reg (EC) No. 178/2002 (see also [1] in the Reference section).
Whether a mango poses an acute health hazard is difficult to judge because, in accordance with the legally established definition of residues, these fruits must be analyzed together with their peels. A reliable risk assessment for the edible parts of the fruits is therefore difficult to make.

 

Info Box

Acute Reference Dose (ARfD)

For the evaluation of pesticides that have a high, acute toxicity and that can cause health damage after just a single or short-term intake, the Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) value is only appropriate to a limited extent.  Since the ADI is derived from long-term studies, it is possibly inadequate as a measure of acute risk from residues in food. Therefore, in addition to the ADI value, a further exposure limit has been established, the so-called Acute Reference Dose (ARfD). The World Health Organization defines the ARfD as the amount of a substance one can consume over the period of one day or in one meal without resulting in any discernible health risk. Other than for the ADI, the ARfD value is not determined for every pesticide, but only for such substances that, when taken in sufficient quantities, could cause damage to one’s health even after just one exposure.

 

EU Pesticides database

EFSA calculation model Pesticide Residue Intake Model “PRIMo”– revision 3.1

 

Table 2 shows an overview of the analytical results for different fruit groups.

 

Table 2: Residues in fruit samples from conventional cultivation, by type of fruit CVUAS, 2019)
Type of Fruit
No. of Samples
Samples with Residues
Samples with Multiple Residues
Samples > MRL
No. Findings > MRL
Substances exceeding the MRL**
Berries
258
253 (98 %)
245 (95 %)
16 (6.2 %)
16
Chlorate (10x); Nicotine (2x); Cetrimonium chloride; Abamectin, sum; DEET; Icaridin
Exotic Fruit
164
143 (87 %)
114 (70 %)
16 (9.8 %)
21
Chlorate (5x); Fosetyl, sum (2x); Chlorpyrifos (2x); Chlorothalonil; Omethoate; Carbaryl; Dithiocarbamates; Paclobutrazol; Dodine; Cypermethrin; lambda-Cyhalothrin; Nicotine; Deltamethrin; Azoxystrobin; Sulfoxaflor
Pome Fruit
84
81 (96 %)
81 (96 %)
1 (1.2 %)
1
Chlorpropham
Stone Fruit
136
130 (96 %)
126 (93 %)
4 (2.9 %)
4
Chlorate (3x); Etofenprox
Citrus Fruit
111
111 (100 %)
108 (97 %)
6 (5.4 %)
8
Chlorate (2x); Fenbutatin oxide (2x); Profenofos; Chlorfenapyr; Lufenuron; Buprofezin
TOTAL
753
718 (95 %)
674 (90 %)
43 (5.7 %)
50 
 

** Individual samples contained more than one substance exceeding the MRL

 

Citrus and exotic fruits contained the highest percentage of MRL exceedances (excluding chlorate). Annex 1 lists the MRL exceedances in conventionally produced fresh fruits; annexes 2 and 3 present the frequency distribution of the detected substances.

 

Presentation of Results for Specific Types of Fruit

Berries contained an average of 6.2 different substances and 0.56 mg pesticide per kg ((average quantity of pesticide excluding fosetyl (sum), surface treatment agents and bromide)). In 2018, in comparison, berries contained an average of 6.1 different substances and an average of 0.54 pesticide per kg. The situation is thereby unchanged.

 

These sensitive fruits are vulnerable to mold, especially in damp weather, so an increased use of fungicide may occur, depending on the weather situation. The samples from 2019 depict the warm summer, as seen in 2018 as well.

 

A total of 86 strawberry samples were analyzed; 48 from Germany and 29 from Spain. Residues were detected in almost all of the samples. The most frequently detected substances were the fungicides fosetyl (sum), trifloxystrobin, fludioxonil, cyprodinil, and fluopyram. Up to 12 different substances were found in one locally grown strawberry sample.

 

Exceedances of the MRL for chlorate were found in Spanish strawberries. There were also excessive levels of contaminants detected: one case of the repellent icaridin [2], and one of nicotine [1]. Currants also contained several substances; two of the samples were detected with as many as 14 different substances, although these were within the legal limits.

 

Table 3: Residues in berries from conventional cultivation (CVUAS, 2019)
Type of Fruit
No. of Samples
Samples with Residues
Samples with Multiple Residues
Samples > MRL
Substances exceeding the MRL**
Blackberry
9
9 (100 %)
9 (100 %)
1 (11 %)
Chlorate
Strawberry
86
85 (99 %)
84 (98 %)
11 (13 %)
Chlorate (9x); Icaridin; Nicotine
Blueberry
34
33 (97 %)
31 (91 %)
-
 
Raspberry
21
19 (90 %)
16 (76 %)
1 (4.8 %)
DEET
Currant
17
17 (100 %)
16 (94 %)
-
 
Gooseberry
9
9 (100 %)
9 (100 %)
-
 
Table Grape
82
81 (99 %)
80 (98 %)
3 (3.7 %)
Abamectin, sum; Cetrimoniumchloride; Nicotine
TOTAL Berries
258
253 (98 %)
245 (95 %)
16 (6.2 %)
 

** Individual samples contained more than one substance exceeding the MRL

 

Pome fruits contained an average of 7.8 different substances and 0.41 mg pesticide per kg ((average quantity of pesticide excluding fosetyl (sum), surface treatment agents and bromide)).

 

Table 4: Residues in pome fruits from conventional cultivation (CVUAS, 2019)
Type of Fruit
No. of Samples
Samples with Residues
Samples with Multiple Residues
Samples > MRL
Substances exceeding the MRL
Apple
53
51 (96 %)
51 (96 %)
1 (1.9 %)
Chlorpropham
Pear
26
26 (100 %)
26 (100 %)
-
 
Quince
5
4 (80 %)
4 (80 %)
-
 
TOTAL
Pome Fruit
84
81 (96 %)
81 (96 %)
1 (1.2 %)
 

 

Conventionally produced apples and pears often contain pesticide residues. A total of 53 apple samples were analyzed, 36 of which came from Germany. Only two German samples were free of any detectable residues. A further 26 pear samples were examined, nine from Germany. All of the pear samples contained residues. The insecticides and fungicides most often detected in pears and apples were chlorantraniliprol, phosphonic acid, captan, trifloxystrobin, dodine and dithianone.

 

Stone fruits contained an average of 5.9 different substances and 0.33 mg pesticide per kg (average quantity of pesticide excluding fosetyl, sum; surface treatment agents; and bromide). Most of the samples came from Spain, Germany and South Africa.

 

Table 5: Residues in stone fruits from conventional cultivation (CVUAS, 2019)
Type of Fruit
No. of Samples
Samples with Residues
Samples with Multiple Residues
Samples > MRL
Substances exceeding the MRL
Apricot
12
12 (100 %)
12 (100 %)
-
 
Avocado
17
13 (76 %)
12 (71 %)
3 (18 %)
Chlorate (3x)
Mirabella
1*
1
1
-
 
Nectarine
22
21 (95 %)
21 (95 %)
-
 
Peach
17
17 (100 %)
17 (100 %)
-
 
Plum
46
45 (98 %)
42 (91 %)
1 (2.2 %)
Etofenprox
Sweet Cherry
21
21 (100 %)
21 (100 %)
-
 
TOTAL
Stone Fruit
136
130 (96 %)
126 (93 %)
4 (2.9 %)
 

* No percentage is given for sample sizes under 5

 

Citrus fruits contained an average of 6.5 different substances and 0.71 mg pesticide per kg (average quantity of pesticide excluding fosetyl, sum; surface treatment agents; and bromide).
When the surface treatment substances thiabendazole, imazalil, prochloraz and orthophenylphenol (often applied to the peel of citrus fruits in large amounts) are included in the calculation, the average comes to 3.7 mg pesticide per kg. Most of the oranges, clementines, satsumas, mandarines and lemons came from Spain. Limes came from Brazil, Mexico or Vietnam. Here were MRL exceedances for substances found that are no longer authorized for use in the EU. There were also two notable exceedances for fenbutatin-oxide, an organotin compound that has hardly been seen in citrus fruits in the last few years. These two samples came from Turkey.

 

Table 6: Residues in citrus fruits from conventional cultivation (CVUAS, 2019)
Type of Fruit
No. of Samples
Samples with Residues
Samples with Multiple Residues
Samples > MRL
Substances exceeding the MRL**
Clementine
13
13 (100 %)
13 (100 %)
-
 
Grapefruit
18
18 (100 %)
18 (100 %)
1 (5.6 %)
Buprofezin; Fenbutatin-oxide
Kumquat
2*
2
-
-
 
Lime
11
11 (100 %)
11 (100 %)
4 (36 %)
Chlorate (2x); Chlorfenapyr; Lufenuron; Profenofos
Mandarine
7
7 (100 %)
7 (100 %)
-
 
Orange
36
36 (100 %)
36 (100 %)
-
 
Pomelo
1
1
1
-
 
Satsuma
2
2
2
1
Fenbutatin-oxide
Lemon
21
21 (100 %)
20 (95 %)
-
 
TOTAL
Citrus Fruit
111
111 (100 %)
108 (97 %)
6 (5.4 %)
 

* No percentage is given for sample sizes under 5

** Individual samples contained more than one substance exceeding the MRL

 

Exotic fruits contained an average of 2.9 different substances and 0.21 mg pesticide per kg (excluding fosetyl, sum; surface treatment substances; and bromide). Fortunately, the situation regarding pomegranates improved: in 2017, 36 % of the pomegranates (mostly from Turkey) were in violation for exceeding the MRL. In 2018 and 2019 the rates of 13 % and 10 % were significantly lower.

 

Table 7: Residues in exotic fruits from conventional cultivation (CVUAS, 2019)
Type of Fruit
No. of Samples
Samples with Residues
Samples with Multiple Residues
Samples > MRL
Substances exceeding the MRL**
Pineapple
18
18 (100 %)
18 (100 %)
1 (5.6 %)
Carbaryl
Banana
3*
3
3
-
 
Fig
11
4 (36 %)
1 (9 %)
-
 
Pomegranate
40
39 (98 %)
33 (83 %)
4 (10 %)
Chlorpyrifos (2x); Cypermethrin, sum; Deltamethrin; Dodin; Sulfoxaflor
Persimmon
10
8 (80 %)
5 (50 %)
-
 
Prickly pear
3
1
-
-
 
Cape gooseberry
1
1
1
-
 
Carambola
(star fruit)
4
4
4
-
 
Kiwi
13
12 (92 %)
11 (85 %)
1 (7.7 %)
Chlorate
Lychee
1
1
1
-
 
Mango
36
34 (94 %)
24 (67 %)
4 (11 %)
Fosetyl, sum; Nicotine; Omethoate; Paclobutrazol
Maracuja
10
10 (100 %)
7 (70 %)
3 (30 %)
Chlorate (2x); Chlorthalonil; Dithiocarbamate; Fosetyl, sum; Lambda-Cyhalothrin
Papaya
8
5 (63 %)
4 (50 %)
3 (38 %)
Chlorate (2x); Azoxystrobin
Rambutan
(hairy lychee)
1
1
1
-
 
Rhubarb
5
2 (40 %)
1 (20 %)
-
 
TOTAL
Exotic Fruit
164
143 (87 %)
114 (70 %)
16 (9.8 %)
 

* No percentage is given for sample sizes under 5
** Individual samples contained more than one substance exceeding the MRL

 

Multiple Residues

Residues from multiple pesticides were also detected in a large number of fruit samples in 2019: 90 % of the 674 samples contained residues of two or more substances (89 % in 2018; 91 % in 2017; 90 % in 2016; 89 % in 2015; 95 % in 2014). Illustration 1 depicts the multiple residues in various types of fruit in 2019.

 

The highest number of substances found this year was in a sample of limes from Brazil and a sample of sweet cherries from Turkey, each with 18 different substances.

 

The residue findings are strongly dependent on the type of sample and their country of origin. Since the particular focus and risk-oriented questions are different each year, the results from one year cannot be seen as representative of the general situation.

 

Illustration 1: Multiple residues in various types of fruit (CVUAS 2019).

Illustration 1: Multiple residues in various types of fruit (CVUAS 2019)

 

When making comparisons of the number of pesticide substances used, one must consider that the individual cultures are grown in different climate zones, and are thus exposed to different degrees of pressure from pests. It is therefore often necessary to take individual, differenciated measures of plant protection.

 

Substances with special features

Phosphonic Acid

Phosphonic acid residues can result from the usage of the fungicidal plant protectors fosetyl and the salts of phosphonic acid (allowed in Germany in fruit and vegetable farming, such as grapes, blackberries and strawberries), as well as from the earlier usage of plant strengtheners (so-called leaf fertilizers).

 

A legal maximum has been determined for the sum of fosetyl and phosphonic acid, as well as their salts. For fresh fruits from conventional cultivation, 48 % (362 samples) were detected with phosphonic acid, calculated as fosetyl, sum, with up to 48 mg/kg (in blackberries). Fosetyl per se was only detected in one sample (strawberries from Spain; see Table 8). Violations occurred in two samples due to exceedances of the maximum for fosetyl, sum (see Annex 1).

 

The average rate of pesticide per sample is strongly influenced by the comparatively high average amount of fosetyl residues. Therefore, Table 1 presents the average rates of pesticides per sample both with and without fosetyl (sum).

 

Info Box

Phosphonic Acid and Fosetyl

Both fosetyl and phosphonic acid are fungicides that are permitted for use in the EU, and fall under the applications area of Reg. (EC) No. 396/2005, regardless of their path of entry.


In addition to the use of a fungicide, another feasible means of exposure could have been via leaf fertilizers that contained phosphonates (salts of phosphonic acid). The categorization of phosphonic acids as a fungicide since the harvest year of 2014 precludes this application, however. There are some indications that plants retain the phosphonic acids, only eliminating them over a period of some years.

 

Table 8: Phosphonic acid and fosetyl residues in fruit from conventional cultivation (CVUAS, 2019)
Type of Fruit Parameter Name
No. of Positive Findings
Range (mg/kg)
Berries Fosetyl
1
0.091
Fosetyl, sum
147
0.074–54
Determined as phosphonic acid
 
0.055–40.2
Exotic Fruit Fosetyl, sum
50
0.089–23.1
Determined as phosphonic acid
 
0.066–17.2
Pome Fruit Fosetyl, sum
55
0.2–12.2
Determined as phosphonic acid
 
0.15–9.1
Stone Fruit Fosetyl, sum
27
0.079–29.8
Determined as phosphonic acid
 
0.059–22.2
Citrus Fruit Fosetyl, sum
83
0.073–11.5
Determined as phosphonic acid
 
0.054–8.6

 

Chlorate

The presence of chlorate residues in plant-based foods can have causes other than its application as an herbicide (see Info Box). In fruit, however, chlorate findings play a very minor role in comparison to vegetables. Just 2.7 % (20 samples) were in violation due to an exceedance of the MRL for chlorate; for vegetables it was 14 % in this reporting year.

 

Info Box

Chlorate

Chlorates are effective as both herbicides and biocides. Since 2008, however, chlorate has no longer been authorized for use as a pesticide* in the EU. Sodium chlorate may also no longer be used in biocide products.

 

The presence of chlorate in food can result not only from its use as a pesticide, but also due to environmental pollution (contaminated rain or irrigation water and soil), or as a residual of food production techniques, including methods used in farming, processing, preparation, or treatment.  The application of biocides, from which chlorate can result, is another possible source of contamination. In general, chlorate can be formed as a by-product of the disinfection of drinking/ industrial water with chlorine gas, hypochlorite, or chlorine dioxide.

 

The definition for „pesticide residues“ in Regulation (EC) Nr. 396/2005 also encompasses residues from pesticidal substances in food (including substances no longer authorized) that have pathways other than from the use of plant protectors (so-called dual-use substances), such as chlorate in food. In 2019 chlorate is thereby covered by the EU-wide valid default MRL of 0.01 mg/kg, in accordance with Reg. (EC) Nr. 396/2005. After years of discussions, a new formulation of the maximum levels for chlorate in the EU will be valid in spring, 2020. The specific established maximum levels will lie between 0.05 and 0.7 mg/kg, depending on the type of food.

 

Chlorate inhibits, reversibly, the intake of iodine into the thyroid gland and can cause unwanted health effects, especially in sensitive people such as children, pregnant women, or people with thyroid dysfunction. In addition to affecting thyroid function, chlorate can also damage the erythrocytes (formation of methaemoglobin, haemolysis).* The presence of chlorate in the food chain should therefore be further reduced.

 

*Federal Institute for Risk Assessment (BfR), recommendations of the BfR for health-based assessment of chlorate residues in food, from 12 May 2014 (accessed on 6 Feb. 2019)

 

The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) derived an acute reference dose (ARfD) for chlorate of 0.036 mg/kg bodyweight. Applying EFSA’s EU-based PRIMo-Model for young children and a variability factor of 1, none of the samples exceeded the toxicological reference value and there was thereby no acute health risk. Nevertheless, the Federal Institute for Risk Assessment (BfR) recommends continuing efforts to reduce the possible entries of chlorate into the food chain and the resulting risk to consumers [3]. Analyses of chlorate residues will continue in 2020; in view of the higher legal maximum levels (see Info Box), however, few exceedances are expected.

 

Chlorpyrifos and Chlorpyrifos-Methyl

The insecticide and acaricide chlorpyrifos has been used to combat against sucking and biting insects in agriculture, against storage pests and ectoparasites in animal husbandry and in the household. Chlorpyrifos belongs to the large group of phosphoric acid esters, whose insecticide effect is based on an inhibition of the cholinesterase. Its triumphal march began after World War II. In contrast to the organochlorine compounds, which are persistent in the environment, organophosphates degrade very quickly. Although their acute toxicity is high ((E605 (parathion) won some dubious prominence in suicide cases because the inhibition of the cholinesterase especially leads to the cramping of the intestinal tract and can result in death due respiratory paralysis)), their chronic toxicity is assessed to be rather low.

 

In 2014 the European Food Safety Association (EFSA) undertook a new toxicological evaluation of chlorpyrifos and adjusted the acceptable daily intake (ADI, chronic toxicity) as well as the acute reference dosage (ARfD, acute toxicity) downward (see Info Box) [5]. Other adjustments followed: in 2016 and 2018 several maximum residue levels were also lowered. Authorization for its use in the EU ended on 16 Feb., 2020. The transitional period during which the existing substance must be depleted ends on 18 April, 2020, after which the universal MRL of 0.01 mg/kg will apply.

 

Since chlorpyrifos has been used widely in citrus cultivation and others [4], we were quite expectant to see how many fruit samples would have exceeded the “new” maximum levels (see Table 9).

 

Table 9: Chlorpyrifos residues in fruit from conventional cultivation > 0.01 mg/kg (CVUAS, 2019)
Type of Fruit Country of Origin Chlorpyrifos (mg/kg)
Banana Costa Rica 0.021
Banana Ecuador 0.047
Clementine Italy 0.013
Pomegranate Turkey 0.026
Pomegranate Turkey 0.015
Grapefruit Turkey 0.280
Grapefruit Turkey 0.020
Orange Italy 0.026
Orange Italy 0.088
Orange Morocco 0.046
Orange South Africa 0.019
Orange Italy 0.094
Pomelo China 0.039
Quince Turkey 0.076

 

Spain, the country from which most of our citrus fruit comes, already saw this development coming and has largely ceased the use of chlorpyrifos [4].

 

As with chlorpyrifos, the authorization of chlorpyrifos-methyl, a structurally related compound, will not be extended. The maximum amount will also be lowered to 0.01 mg/kg. Chlorpyrifos-methyl was also used more often in Spain in 2019 (Table 10). Here the producers still need to make adjustments in 2020.

 

Table 10: Chlorpyrifos-methyl residues in fruit from conventional cultivation > 0.01 mg/kg (CVUAS, 2019)
Type of Fruit Country of Origin Chlorpyrifos-methyl (mg/kg)
Apple Italy 0.040
Grapefruit Turkey 0.220
Mandarine Spain 0.072
Mandarine Spain 0.026
Mandarine Spain 0.017
Mandarine Turkey 0.018
Orange Spain 0.055
Orange Spain 0.016
Orange Spain 0.068
Orange Spain 0.011
Orange Spain 0.066
Orange Spain 0.032
Orange Spain 0.035
Orange Spain 0.093
Orange Spain 0.059
Orange Spain 0.089
Orange Spain 0.037
Peach Italy 0.012
Satsuma Spain 0.020
Table grape. red Italy 0.018
Lemon Spain 0.066

 

Photo Credit

CVUA Stuttgart, Pesticide laboratory

 

References

[1] CVUAS, Nicotine in Food – What Does Smoking Have To Do With It?

[2] CVUAS, Insect Spray as Contaminant in Food: Incidence and Legal Assessment

[3] BfR, Der Eintrag von Chlorat in die Nahrungskette sollte reduziert werden; Aktualisierte Stellungnahme Nr. 007/2018 des BfR vom 15. Februar 2018 (accessed on 09.03.2020)

[4] CVUAS, Das „AUS“ beschlossen: in der EU ist das Insektizid Chlorpyrifos nicht mehr zugelassen

 

Annexes

Annex 1: Substances with MRL exceedances, by type of fruit and country of origin (CVUAS 2019)
Substance Fruits with MRL Exceedances
Chlorate Strawberry (Spain 9x); Lime (Mexico 2x); Avocado (Colombia, Chile, Peru); Kiwi (Italy); Papaya (Spain, Brazil); Passion fruit (Ghana, Laos); Blackberry (Germany)
Chlorpropham Apple (Germany)
Nicotine Grapes (not specified); Mango (not specified); Strawberry (Germany)
Fosetyl, sum Mango (South Africa); Passion fruit (Colombia)
Dodine Pomegranate (India)
Omethoate Mango (Peru)
Chlorfenapyr Lime (Brazil)
Carbaryl Pineapple (Costa Rica)
Chlorothalonil Passion fruit (Colombia)
Dithiocarbamates Passion fruit (Colombia)
lambda-Cyhalothrin Passion fruit (Colombia)
Cetrimonium chloride Grapes (Brazil)
Icaridin Strawberry (Germany)
DEET Raspberry (Germany)
Profenofos Lime (Brazil)
Lufenuron Lime (Brazil)
Etofenprox Plum (Italy)
Azoxystrobin Papaya (Brazil)
Deltamethrin Pomegranate (Turkey)
Abamectin, sum Grapes (Italy)
Paclobutrazol Mango (Brazil)
Fenbutatin oxide Satsuma mandarin (Turkey); Grapefruit (Turkey)
Buprofezin Grapefruit (Turkey)
Chlorpyrifos Pomegranate (Turkey 2x)
Cypermethrin Pomegranate (Turkey)
Sulfoxaflor Pomegranate (Turkey)

 

Annex 2: Frequency of detection of the most important substances* for fresh fruit, by type of fruit, as percentage all analyzed samples (CVUAS 2019), in comparison with 2018

Annex 2a: Frequency of detection of the most important substances for fresh fruit, as percentage all analyzed samples (CVUAS 2019).

 

Annex 2b: Frequency of detection of the most important substances for berries, as percentage all analyzed samples (CVUAS 2019).

 

Annex 2c: Frequency of detection of the most important substances for pome fruits, as percentage all analyzed samples (CVUAS 2019).

 

Annex 2d: Frequency of detection of the most important substances for stone fruits, as percentage all analyzed samples (CVUAS 2019).

 

Annex 2e: Frequency of detection of the most important substances for citrus fruits, as percentage all analyzed samples (CVUAS 2019).

 

Annex 2f: Frequency of detection of the most important substances for exotic fruits, as percentage all analyzed samples (CVUAS 2019).

* Corresponding to the valid residue definition; see Annex 4
A = Acaricide; B = Bactericide; F = Fungicide; H =Herbicide; I = Insecticide; M = Metabolite; G = Growth Regulator

 

Annex 3: Frequency of residue findings of plant protection substances in fresh fruit from conventional production (CVUAS 2019)
Pesticides and Metabolites
Number of Findings
mg/kg
< 0,01
< 0,05
< 0,2
< 1
< 5
< 20
> 20
Max.
Fosetyl, sum 362 0 0 34 112 175 26 15 54
Fludioxonil 277 81 50 61 66 19 0 0 6.1
Boscalid 159 68 45 27 14 5 0 0 3.7
Trifloxystrobin 149 65 49 26 9 0 0 0 0.49
Cyprodinil 145 54 32 24 34 1 0 0 1.2
Fluopyram 124 55 31 28 10 0 0 0 0.44
Pyrimethanil 120 50 20 14 18 18 0 0 4.3
Acetamiprid 101 54 33 14 0 0 0 0 0.13
Azoxystrobin 96 49 18 17 12 0 0 0 0.55
Imazalil 93 11 3 4 32 43 0 0 4.4
Tebuconazole 93 51 24 14 4 0 0 0 0.49
Spirotetramat, sum 91 39 35 17 0 0 0 0 0.18
Pyraclostrobin 87 43 30 11 3 0 0 0 0.69
lambda-Cyhalothrin 84 58 20 6 0 0 0 0 0.09
Difenoconazole 83 69 12 2 0 0 0 0 0.099
Imazalil met. FK411 83 15 34 27 7 0 0 0 0.75
Myclobutanil 81 51 16 11 3 0 0 0 0.29
Chlorantraniliprole 80 56 19 5 0 0 0 0 0.064
Thiacloprid 72 42 25 5 0 0 0 0 0.14
Captan 64 8 23 18 11 4 0 0 7.2
Pyriproxyfen 62 26 31 4 1 0 0 0 0.38
Fenhexamid 59 18 12 10 12 7 0 0 4.5
Penconazole 59 43 13 2 1 0 0 0 0.27
Thiabendazole 58 23 7 3 17 7 1 0 11.5
Chlorpyrifos-methyl 56 32 15 8 1 0 0 0 0.22
Deltamethrin 55 31 22 2 0 0 0 0 0.075
Spinosad 55 39 13 3 0 0 0 0 0.11
Imidacloprid 53 42 10 1 0 0 0 0 0.086
Dimethomorph 50 24 10 9 7 0 0 0 0.91
Dodine 50 37 11 2 0 0 0 0 0.097
Acetamiprid met. IM-2-1 49 44 5 0 0 0 0 0 0.015
Pirimicarb 49 31 11 5 2 0 0 0 0.23
Carbendazim, sum 47 37 10 0 0 0 0 0 0.035
Dithianon 43 6 16 18 3 0 0 0 0.33
Chlorate 41 17 16 8 0 0 0 0 0.17
Metalaxyl (-M) 41 33 6 2 0 0 0 0 0.077
Chlorpyrifos 36 22 10 3 1 0 0 0 0.28
Fluxapyroxad 33 19 4 3 7 0 0 0 0.58
Pendimethalin 33 32 1 0 0 0 0 0 0.01
Trifloxystrobin met. CGA 321112 33 0 32 1 0 0 0 0 0.066
Prochloraz, sum 32 9 3 5 7 8 0 0 3.1
Imidacloprid, Olefin- 31 22 9 0 0 0 0 0 0.04
Indoxacarb 31 21 10 0 0 0 0 0 0.041
Dithiocarbamates 30 0 0 20 10 0 0 0 0.66
Ethephon 30 0 10 15 3 2 0 0 1.3
Etofenprox 30 15 5 5 5 0 0 0 0.49
Hexythiazox 30 25 5 0 0 0 0 0 0.038
Metrafenone 29 13 3 4 7 2 0 0 2.5
Propiconazole 29 14 4 1 4 6 0 0 1.9
Methoxyfenozide 28 16 9 3 0 0 0 0 0.15
Cyprodinil met. CGA304075 27 6 9 11 1 0 0 0 0.83
Cypermethrin 26 6 12 8 0 0 0 0 0.14
Thiabendazole-5-hydroxy 26 8 10 8 0 0 0 0 0.15
Fenbuconazole 25 12 9 4 0 0 0 0 0.094
Quinoxyfen 21 7 7 4 3 0 0 0 0.4
2,4-D 20 12 5 3 0 0 0 0 0.11
Bifenazate, sum 18 7 6 5 0 0 0 0 0.16
Ethephon metabolite HEPA 18 0 10 8 0 0 0 0 0.12
Pirimicarb, desmethyl 18 18 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.009
Bupirimate 17 12 4 0 1 0 0 0 0.23
Iprodione 17 17 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.009
Tebufenpyrad 17 12 4 1 0 0 0 0 0.054
Fenpyroximate 16 15 1 0 0 0 0 0 0.021
Phosmet, sum 16 9 4 3 0 0 0 0 0.12
Fluopyram-Benzamide 15 14 1 0 0 0 0 0 0.014
Spinetoram 15 13 2 0 0 0 0 0 0.036
Trimethylsulfonium cation 15 8 7 0 0 0 0 0 0.033
Bifenthrin 14 8 6 0 0 0 0 0 0.029
Buprofezin 14 9 4 0 1 0 0 0 0.24
Clothianidin 14 11 3 0 0 0 0 0 0.025
Hydroxy-Tebuconazole 14 7 7 0 0 0 0 0 0.016
Tebufenozide 14 9 5 0 0 0 0 0 0.043
Cyflufenamid 13 9 4 0 0 0 0 0 0.048
Forchlorfenuron 12 12 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.004
Malathion, sum 12 10 2 0 0 0 0 0 0.04
Proquinazid 12 5 3 4 0 0 0 0 0.14
Emamectin B1a/B1b 11 11 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.005
Flonicamid, sum 11 6 4 1 0 0 0 0 0.11
Propyzamide 11 11 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.007
Etoxazole 10 6 4 0 0 0 0 0 0.046
Fenoxycarb 10 8 2 0 0 0 0 0 0.014
Gibberellic acid 10 0 8 2 0 0 0 0 0.057
Kresoxim-methyl 10 9 1 0 0 0 0 0 0.031
Mandipropamid 10 6 3 1 0 0 0 0 0.12
Thiophanate-methyl 10 7 3 0 0 0 0 0 0.038
2,4-D, sum 9 0 0 8 1 0 0 0 0.37
Cyantraniliprole 9 2 5 2 0 0 0 0 0.094
Diazinon 9 4 5 0 0 0 0 0 0.026
o-Phenylphenol 9 0 2 3 2 2 0 0 2.5
Spirodiclofen 9 5 2 2 0 0 0 0 0.088
Spiroxamine 9 5 3 1 0 0 0 0 0.056
Sulfoxaflor 9 3 4 2 0 0 0 0 0.1
tau-Fluvalinate 9 8 1 0 0 0 0 0 0.026
Thiamethoxam 9 6 1 2 0 0 0 0 0.068
Abamectin, sum 8 7 1 0 0 0 0 0 0.016
Ethirimol 8 4 4 0 0 0 0 0 0.041
Metalaxyl met. CGA94689 8 8 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.008
Myclobutanil met. RH9090 8 0 6 2 0 0 0 0 0.095
Tetraconazole 8 5 1 2 0 0 0 0 0.13
Cyazofamid 7 5 1 0 1 0 0 0 0.94
Iprovalicarb 7 5 2 0 0 0 0 0 0.024
Metalaxyl met. CGA67869 7 6 1 0 0 0 0 0 0.024
Piperonyl butoxide 7 4 1 0 2 0 0 0 0.38
Glufosinate, sum 6 0 2 4 0 0 0 0 0.12
Omethoate 6 5 1 0 0 0 0 0 0.031
Diflubenzuron 5 4 1 0 0 0 0 0 0.011
Famoxadone 5 2 1 2 0 0 0 0 0.057
Fluopicolide 5 1 3 1 0 0 0 0 0.18
MCPA 5 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.004
Nicotine 5 0 5 0 0 0 0 0 0.015
Paclobutrazol 5 3 2 0 0 0 0 0 0.044
Pyrethrins 5 1 4 0 0 0 0 0 0.026
Ametoctradin 4 0 2 1 1 0 0 0 0.46
Cyfluthrin 4 2 1 1 0 0 0 0 0.071
Cyproconazole 4 3 1 0 0 0 0 0 0.012
DEET 4 3 0 0 1 0 0 0 0.39
Fenbutatin oxide 4 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0.41
Fenvalerat/Esfenvalerat sum 4 1 3 0 0 0 0 0 0.04
Pyridaben 4 0 2 2 0 0 0 0 0.15
Triclopyr 4 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.007
Zoxamide 4 4 2 1         0.12
1-NAD and 1-NAA, sum 3 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.004
Benzyladenine 3 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.008
Boscalid met. M510F01 3 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0.019
Carbaryl 3 2 1 0 0 0 0 0 0.022
Etofenprox met. Alpha-Co 3 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0.033
Fenpyrazamine 3 2 1 0 0 0 0 0 0.021
Flutriafol 3 2 0 0 1 0 0 0 0.32
Glyphosate 3 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0.046
Triadimenol 3 2 0 1 0 0 0 0 0.06
Carbofuran, sum 2 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.002
Chlorfenapyr 2 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0.02
Chlormequatchloride, sum 2 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0.05
Chlorothalonil 2 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0.076
Dimethoate 2 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.005
Dinotefuran 2 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.006
Diphenylamine 2 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0.021
Folpet 2 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.008
Methiocarb, sum 2 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.002
Novaluron 2 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.004
Permethrin 2 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.009
Pirimicarb-desmethyl-formamido- 2 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.004
Profenofos 2 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0.044
Spiromesifen 2 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.009
Triflumizole, sum 2 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.006
Triflumuron 2 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0.047
2,4-DB 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.001
Acrinathrin 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.004
Ametryn 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.001
Azadirachtin A 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0.011
Benalaxyl 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.001
Bromopropylate 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.002
Cetrimonium chloride 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0.045
Chlorpropham 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0.013
Chlorpyrifos-methyl Met. 2,3,5-Trichloro-6-methoxypyridine 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0.032
Chlorothalonil-4-hydroxy 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.005
Clethodim, sum 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.004
Clethodim-sulfon 1 . 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.005
Clofentezine 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.006
Cyazofamid met. CCIM 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0.017
Cymoxanil 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0.025
Cyromazine 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0.078
Epoxiconazole 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.002
Fenpropimorph 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.003
Fluazifop 1 1             0.009
Flupyradifurone 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0.062
Flusilazole 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.003
Haloxyfop 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.004
Hexazinone 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.001
Icaridin 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0.14
Ivermectin 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.004
Lufenuron 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0.019
Metalaxyl met. CGA107955 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0.01
Metamitron 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.004
Methidathion 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.003
Methomyl 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.003
Oxyfluorfen 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.005
Pentachloroanisole 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.001
Pentachlorophenol 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.005
Penthiopyrad 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.004
Phenmedipham 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.004
Pirimicarb-desamido 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0.028
Pirimiphos-methyl 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.001
Procymidone 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.001
Prosulfocarb 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.007
Prothioconazole-desthio 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.001
Prothiofos 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.007
Pymetrozine 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.009
Quintozene, sum 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.003
Tolylfluanid, sum 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.004

 

Annex 4: Substances and metabolites included in the residue definition are only included as the sum in the calculation (one residue)
Parameter Included in the residue definition and analytically recorded
1-Naphthylacetic acid, sum 1-Naphthylacetamide
1-Naphthylacetic acid
Abamectin Avermectin B1a
Avermectin B1b
8,9-Z-Avermectin B1a
Aldicarb, sum Aldicarb
Aldicarb-sulfoxide
Aldicarb-sulfone
Amitraz, sum Amitraz
BTS 27271
Benzalkonium chloride, sum  (BAC) Benzyldimethyloctylammonium chloride (BAC-C8)
Benzyldimethyldecylammonium chloride (BAC-C10)
Benzyldodecyldimethylammonium chloride (BAC-C12)
Benzyldimethyltetradecylammonium chloride (BAC-C14
Benzylhexadecyldimethylammonium chloride (BAC-C16)
Benzyldimethylstearylammonium chloride (BAC-C18)
Carbofuran, sum Carbofuran
3-Hydroxy-Carbofuran
Chloridazon, sum Chloridazon
Chloridazon-desphenyl
DDT, sum DDE, pp-
DDT, pp-
DDD, pp-
DDT, op-
Didecyldimethylammonium chloride, sum (DDAC) Dioctyldimethylammonium chloride (DDAC-C8)
Didecyldimethylammonium chloride (DDAC-C10)
Didodecyldimethylammonium chloride (DDAC-C12)
Dieldrin, sum Dieldrin
Aldrin
Disulfoton, sum Disulfoton
Disulfoton-sulfoxide
Disulfoton-sulfone
Endosulfan, sum Endosulfan, alpha-
Endosulfan, beta-
Endosulfan-sulfate
Fenamiphos, sum Fenamiphos
Fenamiphos-sulfoxide
Fenamiphos-sulfone
Fenthion, sum Fenthion
Fenthion-sulfoxide
Fenthion-sulfone
Fenthion-oxon
Fenthion-oxon-sulfoxide
Fenthion-oxon-sulfone
Fipronil, sum Fipronil
Fipronil-sulfone
Flonicamid, sum Flonicamid
TFNG
TFNA
Fosetyl, sum Fosetyl
Phosphonic acid
Glufosinat, Summe Glufosinat
MPP
N-Acetyl-Glufosinat (NAG)
Malathion, sum Malathion
Malaoxon
Methiocarb, sum Methiocarb
Methiocarb-sulfoxide
Methiocarb-sulfone
Milbemectin Milbemectin A3
Milbemectin A4
Oxydemeton-S-methyl, sum Oxydemeton-methyl
Demeton-S-methyl-sulfone
Parathion-methyl, sum Parathion-methyl
Paraoxon-methyl
Phorate, sum Phorate
Phorate-sulfone
Phorate-oxon
Phorate-oxon-sulfone
Phosmet, sum Phosmet
Phosmet-oxon
Prochloraz, sum Prochloraz
2,4,6-Trichlorphenol
BTS 44595
BTS 44596
BTS 9608
BTS 40348
Pyrethrum, sum Pyrethrin I
Pyrethrin II
Jasmolin I
Jasmolin II
Cinerin I
Cinerin II
Pyridate, sum Pyridate
Pyridafol
Quintozene, sum Quintozene
Pentachloro-aniline
Sethoxydim, sum Sethoxydim
Clethodim
Spirotetramat, sum Spirotetramat,
Spirotetramat-enol,
Spirotetramat,-ketohydroxy
Spirotetramat,-monohydroxy
Spirotetramat-enol-glykoside
Tolylfluanid, sum Tolylfluanid
DMST
Triflumizole, sum Triflumizole
FM-6-1

 

Translated by: Catherine Leiblein

 

Bericht erschienen am 15.04.2020 18:47:41

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