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Residues and Contaminants in Fresh Vegetables from Conventional Culture, 2019

Ein Bericht aus unserem Laboralltag

Kathi Hacker, Marc Wieland and Ellen Scherbaum

 

Summary

Pesticide contamination of conventionally grown fresh vegetables in 2019 remains unchanged in comparison to previous years. Every 20th sample was in violation for at least one exceedance of the maximum residue level (MRL) and when the official violations due to chlorate are included, the rate increased to almost every 5th sample. Except for four samples (3x bell peppers and one kale), the detected pesticide amounts posed no health risk. German grown vegetables scored comparatively well. Our general tip: wash vegetables in warm water before eating them; this will remove some of the residues.

 

Photo Fresh Veg.

Overview

In 2019 a total of 916 samples of fresh vegetables from conventional cultivation were analyzed by CVUA Stuttgart for residues of over 750 different pesticides, pesticide metabolites, and contaminants. In all, 848 of these samples (93 %) contained residues from a total of 226 different pesticide substances; see Annex 3 (this is compared to 219 substances in 2018; 227 in 2017; 202 in 2016; 210 in 2015; and 208 in 2014). A total of 4,596 residues were found (according to the legal definition; see also Annex 4). There were exceedances of the MRL in 166 (18 %) vegetable samples - see Table 1. As in the three previous years, the rate of violations remained comparatively high (21 % in 2018; 16 % in 2017 - 2014; 4.4 % in 2013; 6.4 % in 2012; and 7 % in 2011). This is attributable to the expansion of the investigative spectrum in 2014 to include polar pesticides, as well as to the high number of MRL exceedances for the substance chlorate, affecting a total of 129 (14 %) vegetable samples. When violations for chlorate are excluded from the calculation 45 samples (4.9 %) exceeded the MRL.

 

Results in Detail

All of the samples were routinely analyzed for about 750 substances using the QuEChERS multi-method and the QuPPe method (for very polar substances; see also http://quppe.eu). Table 1 gives an overview of the analyzed fresh vegetable samples, itemized by country of origin.

 

Table 1 Residues of pesticides in vegetable samples from conventional production, by country of origin (CVUAS, 2019)
Fresh Vegetables
Domestic Samples
Samples from other EU countries
Samples from 3rd countries
Samples of unknown origin
Total Samples
Number of samples
438
290
154
34
916
Samples with residues
385 (88 %)
278 (96 %)
152 (99 %)
33 (97 %)
848 (93 %)
Samples >MRL
48 (11 %)
68 (23 %)
43 (28 %)
7 (21 %)
166 (18 %)
Average pesticide amount (mg/kg))
1.1
2.1
1.8
0.27
1.5
Average pesticide content excluding bromide & fosetyl (sum) (mg/kg)*
0.37
0.55
0.29
0.25
0.41
Ave. No. Substances per sample
3.6
5.6
6.2
4.9
4.7

* The comparatively high levels of fosetyl (sum) and bromide residues strongly affect the average quantity of pesticides per sample. The average amount per sample is therefore also provided without fosetyl (sum) and bromide.

 

The samples came from at least 31 different countries, with most originating in Germany (438), Spain (138), Italy (62), Morocco (54), the Netherlands (53), and Turkey (42). There were 34 samples without information regarding the country of origin.

 

When comparing the number of pesticide substances used, one must consider that the individual cultures are grown in different climate zones, and are thus burdened by pests to different degrees. It is therefore necessary to take individual, often different, measures of plant protection. An average of 4.7 different substances was detected per sample, although the local samples scored better, at 3.6 substances. Excluding fosetyl (sum) and bromide, the average amount of pesticide residues overall was 0.41 mg/kg and, for the German-grown samples, 0.37 mg/kg. The rate of German samples with pesticide amounts above the limit values was much lower than those from other countries, however. A closer observation of the countries with the highest rate of exceedances (>20 %) shows that not only third countries were represented, but also some European countries (see Table 2).

 

Table 2 Exceedances of MRLs in vegetables from conventional cultivation; countries with exceedance rates >10 % (w/o chlorate); no. of samples per country >10 (CVUAS, 2019)
Country Country
Category
No. of
Samples
Samples >MRL
w/o Chlorate (%)
Samples >MRL
incl. Chlorate (%)
Egypt Third Country
14
2 (14 %)
2 (14 %)
Turkey Third Country
42
6 (14 %)
8 (19 %)
Morocco Third Country
54
7 (13 %)
11 (20 %)
Belgium EU Country
19
2 (11 %)
3 (16 %)
Italy EU Country
62
6 (10 %)
14 (23 %)

 

Info Box

Maximum Residue Levels

Maximum residue levels (MRLs) are not toxicological endpoints or limit values. They are derived from residue investigations carried out under realistic conditions. The expected residues are then compared with toxicological limit values, in order to ensure that lifelong or a one-time intake of the substance does not pose a health risk.

Maximum residue levels regulate trade, and are not permitted to be exceeded. Food containing residues above the MRL is not marketable; it may not be sold. Not every exceedance of an MRL poses a health risk, however. It is therefore important to make differentiated observations.

 

Reference: Federal Office of Consumer Protection and Food Safety (BVL) brochure, plant protection substances – carefully checked, responsibly authorized, November 2009

 

Four of the conventionally produced vegetables analyzed in 2019 contained levels that exhausted the Acute Reference Dose (ARfD) by 100 %, using the EFSA PRIMo-Model for the EU:

  • Bell peppers from Belgium, with flonicamid residues
  • Bell peppers from Hungary, with formetanate residues
  • Bell peppers from Turkey, with tebuconazole residues
  • Kale from Germany, with nicotine and omethoate residues

These four samples were judged to be unsafe and thus not suitable for human consumption ((Regulation (EC) No. 178/2002, Article 14, Paragraph 2b)).

 

Info Box

Acute Reference Dose (ARfD)

For the evaluation of pesticides that have a high, acute toxicity and that can cause health damage after just a single or short-term intake, the Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) value is only appropriate to a limited extent. Since the ADI is derived from long-term studies, it is possibly inadequate as a measure of acute risk from residues in food. Therefore, in addition to the ADI value, a further exposure limit has been established, the so-called acute reference dose (ARfD). The World Health Organization defined the ARfD as the amount of a substance one can consume over the period of one day or in one meal without resulting in any discernible health risk. Other than for the ADI, the ARfD value is not determined for every pesticide, but only for such substances that, when taken in sufficient quantities, could damage one’s health even after just one exposure.

 

EU Pesticides database

EFSA calculation model Pesticide Residue Intake Model “PRIMo”– revision 3.1 

 

Tables 3 to 7 show the results of residue analyses of vegetables, differentiated by type of vegetable. Annex 1 lists the MRL exceedances for conventionally cultivated fresh vegetables, and Annexes 2 and 3 show the frequency distribution of the detected substances.

 

Table 3 Residues in vegetable samples from conventional cultivation by type of vegetable (CVUAS, 2019)
Type of Vegetable
No. Samples
Samples w/ Residues
Samples w/ Multiple Residues
Samples > MRL
No. Findings > MRL
Substances > MRL**
Leafy vegetables
421
391 (93 %)
353 (84 %)
82 (19 %)
89
Chlorate (71x); Nicotine (4x); Dithiocarbamates (3x); Chlorothalonil; Pyridalyl; Omethoate; Acetamiprid; Linuron; Pyraclostrobin; Folpet; Propyzamide; Pymetrozine; Fluopyram; Chlormequatchloride, sum
Fruiting
vegetables
368
345 (94 %)
294 (80 %)
61 (17 %)
72
Chlorate (41x); Cyflumetofen (5x); Fosetyl, sum (3x); Metalaxyl (-M) (2x); Chlorpyrifos (2x); Propargite (2x); Chlorothalonil; 4-CPA; Fenpropathrin; Oxamyl; Carbendazim, sum; Flutriafol; Triadimenol; Tebuconazole; Flusilazole; Formetanate; Tebufenpyrad; Bifenthrin; Gibberellic acid; Spiromesifen; Flonicamid, sum; Fipronil, sum; Chlormequatchloride, sum
Sprout
vegetables
71
58 (82 %)
37 (52 %)
16 (23 %)
16
Chlorate (14x); Chlorpropham; Nicotine
Root vegetables
56
54 (96 %)
48 (86 %)
7 (13 %)
7
Chlorate (3x); Fosetyl, sum (2x); Nicotine (2x)
TOTAL
916
848 (93 %)
732 (80 %)
166 (18 %)
 
 

*No percentage calculated for sample sizes under 5
** Individual samples contained more than just one compound >MRL

 

Presentation of results for individual vegetable

Leafy vegetables contained an average of 5.1 different substances. With a rate of 0.71 mg pesticide per kg (average, excluding bromide and fosetyl (sum)), these had the highest residue amount of all types of vegetables. In particular, many herb and lettuce samples contained numerous as well as high amounts of pesticides. The highest number was a sample of parsley from Germany, which contained 16 different substances (see also Illustration 1).

 

Table 4 Residues in leafy vegetables from conventional cultivation (CVUAS, 2019)
Matrix
No. Samples
Samples w/ Residues
Samples w/ Multiple Residues
Samples >MRL
Substances >MRL**
Wild garlic
1
-
-
-
 

Basil

21
20 (95 %)
19 (90 %)
13 (62 %)

Chlorate (12x);
Dithiocarbamates

Batavia lettuce

2
2 *
1
-

 

Celery

6
6 (100 %)
6 (100 %)
2 (33 %)

Chlorate (2x); Fluopyram

Savory

1
1
1
-

 

Chicory

9
9 (100 %)
9 (100 %)
2 (22 %)

Chlorate (2x)

Chinese cabbage

8
7 (88 %)
6 (75 %)
1 (13 %)

Chlorate

Dill leaves

8
8 (100 %)
8 (100 %)
5 (63 %)

Chlorate (4x); Folpet;
Pyraclostrobin

Oakleaf lettuce

21
21 (100 %)
20 (95 %)
4 (19 %)

Chlorate (4x)

Iceberg lettuce

33
30 (91 %)
27 (82 %)
4 (12 %)

Chlorate (4x)

Endive

7
7 (100 %)
5 (71 %)
-
 

Lamb‘s lettuce

30
30 (100 %)
24 (80 %)
10 (33 %)

Chlorate (7x); Nicotine (2x); Chlorothalonil

Frisee lettuce

5
4 (80 %)
4 (80 %)
-

 

Borecole

4
4
4
1

Nicotine; Omethoate

Chervil

1
1
1
-

 

Head lettuce

36
35 (97 %)
32 (89 %)
3 (8 %)

Chlorate (2x);
Dithiocarbamates

Coriander

6
6 (100 %)
6 (100 %)
3 (50 %)

Chlorate (3x); Linuron

Spring onion

18
17 (94 %)
15 (83 %)
2 (11 %)

Chlorate; Pyridalyl

Lollo

10
10 (100 %)
10 (100 %)
-

 

Dandelion

1
1
1
-

 

Chard

3
2
1
1

Chlorate; Propyzamide

Mint

2
2
2
-

 

Oregano

1
1
1
-

 

Pak choi

1
1
1
1

Pymetrozine

Parsley

13
13 (100 %)
13 (100 %)
3 (23 %)

Chlorate (3x);
Dithiocarbamates

Leek

32
29 (91 %)
25 (78 %)
1 (3 %)

Nicotine

Radiccio

1
1
-
-

 

Romaine lettuce

30
29 (97 %)
28 (93 %)
11 (37 %)

Chlorate (11x)

Brussels sprouts

19
18 (95 %)
18 (95 %)
-
 

Red cabbage

2
1
1
-
 

Rucola

15
15 (100 %)
15 (100 %)
6 (40 %)

Chlorate (6x); Acetamiprid

Mixed lettuce

2
2
2
-

 

Sorrel

1
1
1
1

Chlorate

Chives

7
7 (100 %)
7 (100 %)
-

 

Red leaf lettuce

2
1
1
1

Chlorate

Spinach

24
20 (83 %)
18 (75 %)
3 (13 %)

Chlorate (3x)

Thyme

1
1
1
1

Chlorate

White cabbage

23
18 (78 %)
11 (48 %)
1 (4 %)

Chlorate

Savoy cabbage

11
7 (64 %)
7 (64 %)
-

 

Lemon grass

3
3
1
2

Chlorate;
Chlormequatchloride, sum

TOTAL
421
391 (93%)
353 (84 %)
82 (19%)
 

*No percentage calculated for sample sizes under 5 * Probenzahl unter 5 keine prozentuale Angabe
**Individual samples contained more than just one compound >MRL

 

Most of the MRL exceedances of leafy vegetables concerned chlorate, although these amounts did not result from an application of an herbicide (see section on chlorate).

 

Fruiting vegetables contained an average of 5.5 different substances per sample, but only 0.16 mg pesticide residues (excluding bromide and fosetyl (sum)), which means the detected substances are often found in only small concentrations. This doesn’t necessarily mean, however, that fruiting vegetables are treated less often or with lower concentrations of pesticides than other types of vegetables during vegetation. Rather, it has become much more common to wash vegetables after the harvest, thereby removing pesticide residues. In the last few years, after-harvest treatment has become more and more automated and wide-spread.

Many of the bell peppers, zucchini, tomatoes and aubergines contained several pesticides. The frontrunners were a sample of chili pepper from Pakistan and a bell pepper from Turkey, each with 18 different substances (see also Illustration 1).

 

Table 5 Residues in fruiting vegetables from conventional cultivation (CVUAS, 2019)
Matrix
No. Samples
Samples w/ Residues
Samples w/ Multiple Residues
Samples >MRL
Substances >MRL**
Aubergine
18
15 (83 %)
10 (56 %)
5 (28 %)
Chlorate (3x); 4-CPA; Fenpropathrin; Spiromesifen

Green bean

56
53 (95 %)
46 (82 %)
13 (23 %)
Chlorate (5x); Fosetyl, sum (3x); Bifenthrin; Carbendazim, sum; Chlorpyrifos; Cyflumetofen; Flutriafol; Gibberellic Acid; Metalaxyl (-M); Propargite; Triadimenol

Chili pepper

5
5 (100 %)
5 (100 %)
3 (60 %)

Chlorate; Chlorothalonil; Cyflumetofen; Fipronil, sum; Flusilazole

Peas w/ pod

6
6 (100 %)
5 (83 %)
-

 

Bell pepper

90
88 (98 %)
78 (87 %)
12 (13 %)

Chlorate (6x); Cyflumetofen (3x); Chlorpyrifos; Flonicamid, sum; Formetanate; Propargite; Tebuconazole; Tebufenpyrad

Cucumber

35
33 (94 %)
29 (83 %)
9 (26 %)

Chlorate (8x); Chlormequatchloride, sum

Pumpkin

9
6 (67 %)
1 (11 %)
-

 

Melon

26
26 (100 %)
24 (92 %)
5 (19 %)

Chlorate (5x)

Okra (Ladyfinger)

3
2 *
2
1

Metalaxyl (-M); Oxamyl

Peperoni

1
1
1
-

 

Tomato

77
72 (94 %)
65 (84 %)
8 (10 %)

Chlorate (8x)

Zucchini

40
38 (95 %)
28 (70 %)
5 (13 %)

Chlorate (5x)

Sweet corn

2
-
-
-
 
TOTAL
368
345 (94 %)
294 (80 %)
61 (17 %)
 

* No percentage calculated for sample sizes under 5
** Individual samples contained more than just one compound >MRL

 

Sprout vegetables contained an average of 2.1 different substances and 0.14 mg pesticide residues per kg sample (average pesticide amount, excluding bromide and fosetyl, sum).

 

Table 6 Residues in sprout vegetables from conventional cultivation (CVUAS, 2019)
Matrix
No. Samples
Samples w/ Residues
Samples w/ Multiple Residues
Samples >MRL
Substances >MRL**

Artichoke

1
1 *
1 *
-
 

Cauliflower

4
2
-
-
 

Broccoli

14
12 (86 %)
9 (64 %)
2 (14 %)

Chlorate (2x)

Fennel

4
4
3
2

Chlorate (2x)

Garlic

2
2
1
-

 

Kohlrabi

10
10 (100 %)
8 (80 %)
2

Chlorate (2x)

Romanesco

1
1
1
-

 

Asparagus

25
18 (72 %)
8 (32 %)
9 (36 %)

Chlorate (8x); Nicotine

Onion

10
8 (80 %)
6 (60 %)
1 (10 %)

Chlorpropham

TOTAL
71
58 (82 %)
37 (52 %)
16 (23 %)
 

* No percentage calculated for sample sizes under 5
** Individual samples contained more than just one compound >MRL

 

Root vegetables contained an average of 4.4 substances per sample and a comparatively low level of pesticide residues of 0.076 mg/kg sample (average pesticide amount excluding bromide and fosetyl, sum). The detected substances were often found in only trace amounts.

 

Table 7 Residues in root vegetables from conventional cultivation (CVUAS, 2019)
Matrix
No. Samples
Samples w/ Residues
Samples w/ Multiple Residues
Samples >MRL
Substances >MRL**

Ginger

2
2 *
2 *
1 *

Nicotine

Celeriac

10
10 (100 %)
10 (100 %)
2 (20 %)

Chlorate; Nicotine

Carrot

16
15 (94 %)
15 (94 %)
-

 

Parsnip

2
2
2
1

Fosetyl, sum

Parsley root

3
3
2
-

 

Radish, small

16
16 (100 %)
13 (81 %)
1 (6 %)

Chlorate

Radish

3
2
2
1

Chlorate

Beetroots

4
4
2
1

Fosetyl, sum

TOTAL
56
54 (96 %)
48 (86 %)
7 (13 %)
 

* No percentage calculated for sample sizes under 5
** Individual samples contained more than just one compound >MRL

 

Multiple residues

A majority of the vegetable samples were also detected with multiple residues in 2019; 732 of the samples (80 %) contained multiple residues. Illustration 1 depicts the number of pesticides found in the different types of vegetables.

The residue findings are closely related to the type of samples analyzed and their country of origin. Since the particular focus and risk-oriented questions are different each year, the results from one year cannot be seen as representative of the general situation, and are only minimally comparable.

 

Info Box

Multiple Residues

When more than one pesticide substance is detected on or in food, this is referred to as multiple residues. There are several conceivable causes for the occurrence of multiple residues. In addition to the use of different substances during the growth phase to combat various pests, they can also stem from, e.g. the application of combination therapies containing several substances, or an intended change in substance in order to prevent the development of resistant pathogens. Furthermore, an additional application during storage or transport, or transmission from a contaminated transport container or conveyor belt, is also possible. Small amounts of substance residues can stem from earlier applications or from the drifting of plant protection measures of neighboring fields. Another possible reason is the occasional compilation of sample food batches coming from different producers who have used different pesticide substances. Finally, the improper conduct of good agricultural practices with reference to the use of pesticides cannot always be ruled out.

 

Reference: Federal Office of Consumer Protection and Food Safety (BVL) Background information: Multiple Residues of Plant Protection Substances in and on Foods

 

Illustration 1: Multiple residues in various types of vegetables (CVUAS, 2019).

Illustration 1: Multiple residues in various types of vegetables (CVUAS, 2019)

 

Substances with Special Features

Chlorate

Chlorate residues in plant-based foods can also stem from sources other than herbicides (see Info Box). Chlorate findings play a bigger role in vegetables than in fruit. In this reporting year chlorate was detected in 316 vegetable samples (34 %), with amounts up to 0.63 mg/kg (basil from Ethiopia).

 

Info Box

Chlorate

Chlorates are effective as both herbicides and biocides. Since 2008, however, chlorate is no longer authorized for use as a pesticide* in the EU. Sodium chlorate may also no longer be used in biocide products.
The presence of chlorate in food can result not only from its use as a pesticide, but also from environmental pollution (contaminated rain- or irrigation water and soil), or as a residual of food production techniques, including methods used in farming, processing, preparation, or treatment. The application of biocides, from which chlorate can result, is another possible source of contamination. In general, chlorate can be formed as a by-product of the disinfection of drinking/ industrial water with chlorine gas, hypochlorite, or chlorine dioxide..

The definition for „pesticide residues“ in Regulation (EC) Nr. 396/2005 also encompasses residues from pesticidal substances in food (including substances no longer authorized) that have pathways other than from the use of plant protectors (so-called dual-use substances), such as chlorate in food. In 2019 chlorate is thereby covered by the EU-wide valid default MRL of 0.01 mg/kg, in accordance with regulation (EC) No. 396/2005. In spring of 2020, after years of discussions, a new formulation of the maximum levels for chlorate in the EU will be valid. The specific established maximum levels will lie between 0.05 and 0.7 mg/kg, depending on the type of food.

Chlorate inhibits, reversibly, the intake of iodine into the thyroid gland and can cause unwanted health effects, especially in sensitive people such as children, pregnant women, or people with thyroid dysfunction. In addition to affecting thyroid function, chlorate can also damage the erythrocytes (formation of methaemoglobin, haemolysis).* An application of chlorate in the food chain should therefore be further reduced.

 

* Federal Institute for Risk Assessment (BfR), Recommendations of the BfR for health-based assessment of chlorate residues in food, from 12 May 2014 (retrieved on 6 Feb. 2019)

 

The European Food Safety Authority established an acute reference dose (ARfD) of 0.036 mg chlorate per kg body weight. Applying the PRIMo model based on small children, and using a variability factor of 1, none of the samples exceeded the toxicological reference value. No acute health risk was thus determined. Nevertheless, the Federal Institute for Risk Assessment (BfR) recommends continuing efforts to reduce the possible entries of chlorate into the food chain and the resulting risk to consumers [1].

 

In 2019, 129 samples (14 %) were reported for violations, due to the exceedance of the MRL for chlorate (18 % in 2018; 13 % in 2017; 12 % in 2016; 13 % in 2015; and 12 % in 2014). Illustration 2 shows the distribution. It is clear that most of the samples only minimally exceeded the current maximum value of 0.01 mg/kg. Analyses of chlorate will be continued in 2020.

 

Illustration 2: Frequency distribution of chlorate quantities above the maximum value (CVUAS, 2019).

Illustration 2: Frequency distribution of chlorate quantities above the maximum value (CVUAS, 2019)

 

Phosphonic Acid and Fosetyl

Phosphonic acid residues can result from the application of the fungicides fosetyl and the salts of phosphonic acid (authorized for use in Germany in fruit and vegetable cultivation such as cucumber, lettuce, bell peppers and fresh herbs), as well as from an earlier application of growth enhancers (so-called leaf fertilizers).

 

Phosphonic acid is included in the legal MRL for fosetyl (sum of fosetyl and phosphonic acids and their salts, calculated as fosetyl). Phosphonic acid was detected in 156 samples of vegetables (17 %), in amounts up to 42 mg/kg (56 mg fosetyl, sum). Only four samples were detected with fosetyl per se (2x rucola, 1x bell pepper and 1x cucumber), see Table 8. Five samples were in violation due to an exceedance of the MRL (see Annex 1).

 

The average rate of pesticide per sample is strongly influenced by the comparatively high average amount of phosphonic acid, or fosetyl (sum) residues. Table 1, therefore, presents the average rates of pesticides per sample both with and without fosetyl (sum).

 

Info Box

Phosphonic Acid and Fosetyl

Both fosetyl and phosphonic acid are fungicides that are permitted for use in the EU and fall under the applications area of regulation (EC) No. 396/2005, regardless of their path of entry. In addition to the use of a fungicide, another feasible means of exposure could be via a leaf fertilizer that contains phosphonates (salts of phosphonic acid). The categorization of phosphonic acids as a fungicide has precluded this application since the harvest year of 2014. There are indications, however, that plants retain phosphonic acids, only eliminating them over a period of time. Residue findings could thus be traced to an earlier, authorized, leaf fertilization.

 

Table 8 Phosphonic acid and fosetyl residues in vegetables from conventional cultivation (CVUAS, 2019)
Matrix-Group Parameter
No. Positive Findings
Range (mg/kg)
Leafy Vegetables

Fosetyl

2

0.16 – 0.24

Phosphonic acid

65

011 – 41.6

Fosetyl, sum (calculated)

65 (15 %)

0.15 – 56.0

Fruiting Vegetables

Fosetyl

2

0.055 – 0.26

Phosphonic acid

72

0.070 – 28.7

Fosetyl, sum (calculated)

73 (20 %)

0.094 – 38.5

Sprout Vegetables

Phosphonic acid

10

0.090 – 2.4

Fosetyl, sum (calculated)

10 (14 %)

0.12 – 3.2

Root Vegetables

Phosphonic acid

8

0.10 – 6.2

Fosetyl, sum (calculated)

8 (14 %)

0.13 – 8.3

 

Bromide

Bromide (degradation product of the fumigant methyl bromide) tends to appear in high amounts in vegetable samples. Bromide can also occur naturally, as it comes from the soil. There are also indications that soil near the sea can have naturally higher levels of bromide; Italy often mentions this as a source. For this reason, only amounts >10 mg/kg are included in the assessment, because only from this amount can an application of the fumigant methyl bromide be assumed. Bromide amounts >10 mg/kg were detected in 16 samples, with quantities up to 43.2 mg/kg. None of the samples were found to be in violation due to an exceedance of the MRL for bromide. Since the average pesticide amount is strongly influenced by the high levels of bromide, the statistics presented in Table 1 are also provided without bromide.

 

Because methyl bromide is a fast-acting, effective fumigant, it was widely used over a long period of time. Methyl bromide is very damaging to the ozone layer, however. In 1987, therefore, an international contract was made among 175 countries (The Montreal Protocol), in which the countries agreed to limit the use of methyl bromide until 2015, using alternative fumigants. Since 2015 the use of methyl bromide has been banned world-wide. A reduction of detected bromide residues is thus expected in the coming years.

 

Table 9 Bromide residues >10 mg/kg in vegetables from conventional cultivation (CVUAS, 2019)
Matrix Country of Origin Quantity in Sample (mg/kg)

Basil

Israel

19.9

Sugar pea

Simbabwe

13..6

Lamb’s lettuce

Frankreich

43.2

Celery root

Niederlande

9.4

Coriander

Thailand

42.6

Parley

Italien

15.6

Rucola

Italien (5x)

10.3 / 13.6 / 19.3 / 21.3 / 25.8

Spinach

Italien (2x)

12.3 / 37.1

Deutschland

14.7

Thyme

Israel

11.0

Lemon grass

Vietnam

17.1

 

Nicotine

CVUA Stuttgart continues to find residues of nicotine in vegetables, which is no longer authorized for use in the EU. In addition to the purposed use of nicotine as a pesticide or of tobacco brew as an allegedly ecological substance, nicotine residues can also stem from natural quantities in the plant itself or from contamination via tobacco dust or smokers‘ hands (see also [2]). There were seven notable findings of quantities exceeding the legal MRL in this reporting year.

 

Photo credit

CVUA Stuttgart, pesticide laboratory

 

References

[1] Der Eintrag von Chlorat in die Nahrungskette sollte reduziert werden; Aktualisierte Stellungnahme Nr. 007/2018 des BfR vom 15. Februar 2018.

[2] Nicotine in Food – What Does Smoking Have To Do With It?; CVUA Stuttgart.

 

Annexes

Annex 1: Substances with MRL exceedances, itemized by type of vegetable and country of origin (CVUAS, 2019)
Substance Vegetable with MRL exceedances
4-CPA Aubergine (Italy)
Acetamiprid Rucola (Italy)
Bifenthrin Green beans (Morocco)
Carbendazim, sum Green beans (Morocco)
Chlorate Zucchini (Spain 5x); Rucola (Italy 5x, Germany); Parsley (Germany 3x); Dill leaves (Morocco, Italy 2x, Not Specified); Asparagus (Peru 7x, Spain); Green beans (Not Specified, Morocco 4x); Melon (Brazil 2x, Spain 3x); Bell peppers (Spain 3x, Turkey 2x, Germany); Oakleaf lettuce (Italy, Germany 3x); Lamb’s lettuce (France 4x, Germany 3x); Romaine lettuce (Spain 10x, Germany); Tomato (Netherlands 3x, Spain 2x, Not Specified, Germany, Belgium); Cucumber (Spain 3x, Turkey, Netherlands 4x); Celeriac (Germany); Coriander (Thailand, Germany, Not Specified); Iceberg lettuce (Spain 4x); Head lettuce (Italy, Germany); Spring onion (Italy); Cutting lettuce (France); Kohlrabi (Spain 2x); Basil (Israel 3x, Germany 7x, Not Specified, Ethiopia); Chicory (Germany 2x); Spinach (Germany 3x); Radish (Germany); Broccoli (Spain 2x); Chili peppers (Netherlands); White cabbage (Germany); Chinese cabbage (Germany); Thyme (Israel); Sorrel (Germany); Celery (Germany 2x); Radish, small (Germany); Fennel (Germany 2x); Aubergine (Netherlands, Germany, Spain); Lemon grass (Thailand); Chard (Italy)
Chlormequat chloride, sum Lemon grass (Thailand); Cucumber (Turkey)
Chlorpropham Onion (Germany)
Chlorpyrifos Green beans (Italy); Bell peppers (Turkey)
Chlorothalonil Chili peppers (Pakistan); Lamb’s lettuce (Germany)
Cyflumetofen Bell peppers (Turkey 3x); Green beans (Egypt); Chili peppers (Turkey)
Dithiocarbamates Head lettuce (Belgium); Basil (Israel); Parsley (Germany)

 

Fenpropathrin Aubergine (Not Specified)
Fipronil, sum Chili peppers (Pakistan)
Flonicamid, sum Bell peppers (Belgium)
Fluopyram Celery (Germany)
Flusilazole Chili peppers (Pakistan)
Flutriafol Green beans (Morocco)
Folpet Dill leaves (Germany)
Formetanate Bell peppers (Hungary)
Fosetyl, sum Parsnip (Germany); Green beans (Morocco 2x, Kenya); Beetroots (Germany)
Gibberellic acid Green beans (Morocco)
Linuron Coriander (Not Specified)
Metalaxyl (-M) Green beans (Morocco); Okra (Ladyfingers) (Jordan)
Nicotine Ginger (China); Borecole (Germany); Lamb’s lettuce (Italy, Germany); Asparagus (Germany); Leek (Germany); Celeriac (Not Specified)
Omethoate Borecole (Germany)
Oxamyl Okra (Ladyfingers) (Jordan)
Propargite Green beans (Morocco); Bell peppers (Morocco)
Propyzamide Chard (Italy)
Pymetrozine Pak choi (Germany)
Pyraclostrobin Dill leaves (Italy)
Pyridalyl Spring onions (Egypt)
Spiromesifen Aubergine (Italy)
Tebuconazole Bell peppers (Turkey)
Tebufenpyrad Bell peppers (Morocco)
Triadimenol Green beans (Morocco)

 

 

Annex 2: Frequency of detection of the most important substances for vegetables, by type of vegetable, as a percentage of all analyzed samples (CVUAS, 2019), in comparison with 2019

Annex 2: Frequency of detection of the most important substances for vegetables as a percentage of all analyzed samples (CVUAS, 2019).

 

Annex 2a: Frequency of detection of the most important substances for leafy vegetables as a percentage of all analyzed samples (CVUAS, 2019).

 

Annex 2b: Frequency of detection of the most important substances for sprout vegetables as a percentage of all analyzed samples (CVUAS, 2019).

 

Annex 2c: Frequency of detection of the most important substances for fruiting vegetables as a percentage of all analyzed samples (CVUAS, 2019).

 

Annex 2d: Frequency of detection of the most important substances for root vegetables as a percentage of all analyzed samples (CVUAS, 2019).

Corresponding to the valid residue definition; see Annex 4
A = Acaricide; B = Bactericide; F = Fungicide; H = Herbicide; I = Insecticide; M = Metabolite; G = Growth Regulator

 

Annex 3: Frequency of residue findings of plant protection substances corresponding to the valid residue definition in fresh vegetables from conventional production (CVUAS, 2019)
Pesticide and Metabolite
No. Positive Findings
Mg/Kg
Samples > HM
<0.01
<0.05
<0.2
<1
<10
<20
>20
Max.
Chlorate
315
178
108
25
4
0
0
0
0.63
See Annex 1
Boscalid
298
195
59
21
16
6
1
0
15.2
 
Azoxystrobin
280
184
62
20
8
6
0
0
8.7
 
Fluopyram
216
132
60
21
3
0
0
0
0.98
Celery (Germany)
Fosetyl, sum
156
0
0
15
56
65
10
10
56
Parsnip (Germany); Green beans (Morocco 2x, Kenya); Beetroots (Germany)
Spirotetramat, sum
148
55
64
22
5
2
0
0
2.5
 
Dimethomorph
146
80
37
13
10
6
0
0
9.1
 
Pendimethalin
132
112
19
1
0
0
0
0
0.07
 
Chlorantraniliprole
114
79
27
4
4
0
0
0
0.31
 
Difenoconazole
111
62
33
8
7
1
0
0
1.6
 
Cyprodinil
107
68
24
9
6
0
0
0
0.72
 
Acetamiprid
102
57
29
12
1
3
0
0
3.6
Rucola (Italy)
Fludioxonil
100
73
11
10
2
4
0
0
2.6
 
Metalaxyl (-M)
98
77
13
6
2
0
0
0
0.36
Green beans (Morocco); Okra (Ladyfingers) (Jordan)
Pyraclostrobin
97
54
23
11
8
1
0
0
3.8
Dill leaves (Italy)
lambda-Cyhalothrin
87
69
8
8
2
0
0
0
0.55
 
Propamocarb
72
14
20
21
16
1
0
0
3.6
 
Imidacloprid
68
53
11
4
0
0
0
0
0.17
 
Acetamiprid met. IM-2-1
63
42
15
6
0
0
0
0
0.19
 
Thiacloprid
61
46
13
1
1
0
0
0
0.61
 
Tebuconazole
60
37
15
6
2
0
0
0
0.61
Bell peppers (Turkey)
Spinosad
55
36
12
4
1
2
0
0
6.5
 
Mandipropamid
54
18
9
11
7
7
1
1
22
 
Indoxacarb
53
33
14
4
2
0
0
0
0.22
 
Dithiocarbamates
52
0
0
20
26
5
0
1
24.5
Head lettuce (Belgium); Basil (Israel); Parsley (Germany)
Propyzamide
46
39
7
0
0
0
0
0
0.045
Chard (Italy)
Deltamethrin
43
19
19
4
1
0
0
0
0.25
 
Fluopyram-Benzamide
42
36
6
0
0
0
0
0
0.021
 
Spiromesifen
42
14
9
14
5
0
0
0
0.76
Aubergine (Italy)
Propamocarb-N-oxide
41
7
15
13
6
0
0
0
0.6
 
Bifenazate, sum
38
18
16
4
0
0
0
0
0.11
 
Metalaxyl met. CGA94689
33
28
3
2
0
0
0
0
0.16
 
Trifloxystrobin
33
30
3
0
0
0
0
0
0.042
 
Propamocarb-N-desmethyl
32
13
16
2
1
0
0
0
0.23
 
Chlorpyrifos-methyl
31
23
4
3
1
0
0
0
0.52
 
Pyrimethanil
31
24
3
3
1
0
0
0
0.34
 
Thiamethoxam
31
29
1
1
0
0
0
0
0.053
 
Pirimicarb
30
22
5
3
0
0
0
0
0.12
 
Fenhexamid
27
13
6
1
4
3
0
0
1.5
 
Chlorpyrifos
25
21
3
1
0
0
0
0
0.066
Green beans (Italy); Bell peppers (Turkey)
Pyriproxyfen
24
13
8
3
0
0
0
0
0.14
 
Flutriafol
23
14
8
1
0
0
0
0
0.17
Green beans (Morocco)
Metrafenone
23
16
5
2
0
0
0
0
0.076
 
Fluopicolide
22
14
7
1
0
0
0
0
0.18
 
Triadimenol
22
14
7
1
0
0
0
0
0.075
Green beans (Morocco)
Hexythiazox
20
9
9
1
1
0
0
0
0.21
 
Gibberellic acid
18
0
17
1
0
0
0
0
0.07
Green beans (Morocco)
Iprodione
18
16
2
0
0
0
0
0
0.024
 
Metalaxyl met. CGA67869
18
14
4
0
0
0
0
0
0.049
 
1-NAD and 1-NAA, sum
17
13
4
0
0
0
0
0
0.026
 
Chlorothalonil
17
7
5
5
0
0
0
0
0.19
Chili peppers (Pakistan); Lamb’s lettuce (Germany)
Etofenprox
17
4
7
2
4
0
0
0
0.58
 
Imidacloprid, Olefin-
17
17
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.006
 
Carbendazim, sum
16
10
5
0
1
0
0
0
0.32
Green beans (Morocco)
Flonicamid, sum
16
6
4
2
4
0
0
0
0.46
Bell peppers (Belgium)
Bromide
16
0
0
0
0
1
10
5
43.2
 
Myclobutanil
16
13
2
0
1
0
0
0
0.29
 
Pirimicarb, desmethyl
16
10
4
2
0
0
0
0
0.072
 
Cypermethrin
15
5
5
2
3
0
0
0
0.71
 
Methoxyfenozide
15
10
4
1
0
0
0
0
0.12
 
Pymetrozine
15
6
3
3
3
0
0
0
0.66
Pak choi (Germany)
Chlorothalonil-4-hydroxy
14
14
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.008
 
Nicotine
14
0
14
0
0
0
0
0
0.031
Ginger (China); Borecole (Germany); Lamb’s lettuce (Italy, Germany); Asparagus (Germany); Leek (Germany); Celeriac (Not Specified)
Prosulfocarb
14
13
1
0
0
0
0
0
0.047
 
Clothianidin
13
8
5
0
0
0
0
0
0.024
 
Emamectin B1a/B1b
13
10
3
0
0
0
0
0
0.018
 
Imazalil
13
5
4
1
2
1
0
0
1.1
 
Prothioconazole-desthio
13
13
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.009
 
Abamectin, sum
12
8
4
0
0
0
0
0
0.019
 
Chloridazon, sum
12
8
3
1
0
0
0
0
0.074
 
DDT, sum
12
12
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.007
 
Ametoctradin
12
0
8
2
1
1
0
0
8.9
 
Tebufenpyrad
12
10
1
1
0
0
0
0
0.084
Bell peppers (Morocco)
Azadirachtin A
11
7
3
1
0
0
0
0
0.18
 
Bifenthrin
11
8
1
2
0
0
0
0
0.059
Green beans (Morocco)
Cyazofamid
11
5
6
0
0
0
0
0
0.041
 
Pyridaben
11
7
3
1
0
0
0
0
0.065
 
Cyantraniliprole
10
6
4
0
0
0
0
0
0.036
 
Cyflufenamid
10
9
1
0
0
0
0
0
0.011
 
Fenpyrazamine
10
9
1
0
0
0
0
0
0.016
 
Flupyradifurone
10
0
5
4
1
0
0
0
0.26
 
Linuron
9
7
0
1
1
0
0
0
0.36
Coriander
(Not Specified)
Pyridalyl
9
3
3
3
0
0
0
0
0.077
Spring onion (Egypt)
Thiophanate-methyl
9
5
1
3
0
0
0
0
0.11
 
Aclonifen
8
8
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.008
 
Epoxiconazole
8
8
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.002
 
Famoxadone
8
2
4
2
0
0
0
0
0.11
 
Fenpyroximate
8
6
1
1
0
0
0
0
0.059
 
Fluazifop
8
7
1
0
0
0
0
0
0.038
 
Fluxapyroxad
8
5
3
0
0
0
0
0
0.045
 
Spinetoram
8
6
2
0
0
0
0
0
0.022
 
Triflumizole, sum
8
6
2
0
0
0
0
0
0.03
 
Buprofezin
7
3
4
0
0
0
0
0
0.025
 
Imazalil met. FK411
7
4
3
0
0
0
0
0
0.039
 
Metobromuron
7
7
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.006
 
Piperonyl butoxide
7
4
1
2
0
0
0
0
0.14
 
Terbutylazine-desethyl
7
6
1
0
0
0
0
0
0.032
 
Acrinathrin
6
3
3
0
0
0
0
0
0.017
 
Chlorpropham
6
3
2
1
0
0
0
0
0.064
Onion (Germany)
Clomazone
6
6
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.005
 
Cyromazine
6
3
3
0
0
0
0
0
0.03
 
Pirimicarb-desamido-desmethyl
6
3
2
1
0
0
0
0
0.11
 
2,4-D
5
5
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.003
 
Cyflumetofen
5
0
4
1
0
0
0
0
0.1
Bell peppers (Turkey 3x); Green beans (Egypt); Chili peppers (Turkey)
Sulfoxaflor
5
4
1
0
0
0
0
0
0.018
 
4-CPA
4
1
3
0
0
0
0
0
0.018
Aubergine (Italy)
Benalaxyl
4
3
1
0
0
0
0
0
0.015
 
Boscalid met. M510F01
4
0
4
0
0
0
0
0
0.037
 
Chlormequat chloride, sum
4
1
2
0
1
0
0
0
0.22
Lemon grass (Thailand); Cucumber (Turkey)
Ethoprophos
4
4
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.006
 
Etridiazole
4
2
2
0
0
0
0
0
0.023
 
ETU
4
0
3
0
1
0
0
0
0.55
 
Lufenuron
4
3
1
0
0
0
0
0
0.019
 
Mepanipyrim
4
2
2
0
0
0
0
0
0.023
 
Omethoate
4
3
0
1
0
0
0
0
0.083
Borecole (Germany)
Quintozene, sum
4
4
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.008
 
Spiromesifen-enol
4
3
1
0
0
0
0
0
0.011
 
Tebufenozide
4
3
1
0
0
0
0
0
0.012
 
Terbuthylazine
4
4
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.004
 
Trimethylsulfonium cation
4
1
3
0
0
0
0
0
0.029
 
Biphenyl
3
0
3
0
0
0
0
0
0.017
 
Bromoxynil
3
3
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.002
 
Bupirimate
3
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
0.054
 
Cyfluthrin
3
0
2
1
0
0
0
0
0.075
 
Difenoconazole alcohol
3
2
0
1
0
0
0
0
0.074
 
Etoxazole
3
2
1
0
0
0
0
0
0.014
 
Fenamidone
3
1
2
0
0
0
0
0
0.035
 
Fipronil, sum
3
3
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.008
Chili peppers (Pakistan)
Fipronil-desulfinyl
3
3
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.009
 
Flubendiamide
3
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
0.074
 
Folpet
3
1
1
0
1
0
0
0
0.3
Dill leaves (Germany)
Kresoxim-methyl
3
3
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.009
 
Maleic hydrazide
3
0
0
0
0
3
0
0
4.1
 
Methiocarb, sum
3
2
0
1
0
0
0
0
0.073
 
Nereistoxin
3
2
1
0
0
0
0
0
0.01
 
Oxadiazon
3
1
2
0
0
0
0
0
0.025
 
Oxamyl-oxime
3
0
3
0
0
0
0
0
0.044
 
Oxydemeton-S-methyl, sum
3
3
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.003
 
Phenmedipham
3
3
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.002
 
Pirimicarb-desamido
3
3
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.008
 
Pirimicarb-desmethyl-formamido-
3
2
1
0
0
0
0
0
0.01
 
Profenofos
3
2
0
1
0
0
0
0
0.065
 
Spirodiclofen
3
0
3
0
0
0
0
0
0.032
 
Teflubenzuron
3
3
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.006
 
Tri-Allate
3
3
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.002
 
Aldrin/Dieldrin, sum
2
2
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.005
 
Dimethoate
2
2
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.003
 
Etofenprox met. Alpha-Co
2
0
2
0
0
0
0
0
0.049
 
Fluacrypyrim
2
2
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.004
 
Fluazifop, Sum
2
1
0
1
0
0
0
0
0.078
 
Flufenacet
2
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0.014
 
Haloxyfop
2
2
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.001
 
Hexaconazole
2
2
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.006
 
Metaflumizone
2
0
2
0
0
0
0
0
0.026
 
Metamitron
2
2
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.009
 
Methomyl
2
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0.027
 
Myclobutanil met. RH9090
2
0
2
0
0
0
0
0
0.015
 
Napropamide
2
2
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.002
 
Penthiopyrad
2
1
0
1
0
0
0
0
0.058
 
Prochloraz, sum
2
1
0
1
0
0
0
0
0.076
 
Propargite
2
0
1
0
0
1
0
0
1
Green beans (Morocco); Bell peppers (Morocco)
Prothioconazole
2
2
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.004
 
Pyrethrins
2
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0.038
 
tau-Fluvalinate
2
2
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.003
 
Thiabendazole
2
2
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.006
 
Tolclofos-methyl
2
1
0
1
0
0
0
0
0.09
 
2-Naphthoxyacetic acid
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.002
 
3-Pyridinecarboxaldehyde
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.007
 
Amisulbrom
1
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0.033
 
Anthraquinone
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.003
 
Bentazone
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.001
 
Bromopropylate
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.001
 
Carbanilide
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.002
 
Captan
1
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0.028
 
Carbendazim met. 2-Aminobenzimidazole
1
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0.033
 
Carbofuran, sum
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.001
 
Chlorfenprop-methyl
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.002
 
Clofentezine
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.001
 
Cymoxanil
1
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0.012
 
Cyprodinil met. CGA304075
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.008
 
DEET
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.009
 
Dicloran
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.001
 
Diethofencarb
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0.13
 
Diflubenzuron
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.007
 
Dikegulac
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.009
 
 
1
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0.21
 
Dinotefuran
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.001
 
Ethephon
1
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0.24
 
Ethephon metabolite HEPA
1
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0.3
 
Ethirimol
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.002
 
Ethofumesate
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.001
 
Fenamiphos, sum
1
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0.018
 
Fenarimol
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.001
 
Fenazaquin
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.009
 
Fenbutatin oxide
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.005
 
Fenpropathrin
1
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0.019
Aubergine
(Not Specified)
Fenpropidin
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.002
 
Fensulfothion-sulfone
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.002
 
Fipronil-sulfide
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.001
 
Fluroxypyr
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.002
 
Flusilazole
1
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0.019
Chili peppers (Pakistan)
Formetanate
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0.11
Bell peppers (Hungary)
Fosthiazate
1
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0.014
 
Glufosinate, sum
1
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0.012
 
Heptachlor epoxide, cis
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.002
 
Hydroxy-Tebuconazole
1
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0.014
 
Iprovalicarb
1
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0.01
 
Isopyrazam
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.002
 
Lenacil
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.003
 
gamma-HCH
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.002
 
Matrine
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.003
 
MCPA
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.002
 
Mepiquat chloride, sum
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.008
 
Metalaxyl met. CGA107955
1
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0.01
 
Metribuzin
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.005
 
o-Phenylphenol
1
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0.013
 
Oxamyl
1
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0.049
Okra (Ladyfingers) (Jordan)
Oxyfluorfen
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.006
 
Penconazole
1
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0.01
 
Pencycuron
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.001
 
Permethrin
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.009
 
Propiconazole
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.009
 
Proquinazid
1
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0.018
 
Spiroxamine
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.001
 
Tetraconazole
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.003
 
Triflumuron
1
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0.01
 

* Bromide can also stem from natural resources, so only amounts >5 mg/kg are listed.

 

Annex 4: Substances and metabolites included in the residue definition and only included as the sum in the calculation (one residue)
Parameter Included in the residue definition and analytically recorded
1-Naphthyl acetic acid, sum 1-Naphthyl acetamide
1-Naphthyl acetic acid
Abamectin Avermectin B1a
Avermectin B1b
8,9-Z-Avermectin B1a
Aldicarb, sum Aldicarb
Aldicarb-sulfoxide
Aldicarb-sulfon
Amitraz, total Amitraz
BTS 27271
Benzalkonium chloride, sum (BAC) Benzyldimethyloctyl ammoniumchloride (BAC-C8)
Benzyldimethyldecyl ammoniumchloride (BAC-C10)
Benzyldodecyldimethyl ammoniumchloride (BAC-C12)
Benzyldimethyltetradecyl ammoniumchloride (BAC-C14)
Benzylhexadecyldimethyl ammoniumchloride (BAC-C16)
Benzyldimethylstearyl ammoniumchloride (BAC-C18)
Carbofuran, sum Carbofuran
3-Hydroxy-Carbofuran
Chloridazon, sum Chloridazon
Chloridazon-desphenyl
DDT, sum DDE, pp-
DDT, pp-
DDD, pp-
DDT, op-
Dialkyldimethyl-ammoniumchloride, sum (DDAC) Dioctyldimethyl-ammoniumchloride (DDAC-C8)
Didecyldimethyl-ammoniumchloride (DDAC-C10)
Didodecyldimethyl-ammoniumchloride (DDAC-C12)
Dieldrin, Sum Dieldrin
Aldrin
Disulfoton, Sum Disulfoton
Disulfoton-sulfoxide
Disulfoton-sulfon
Endosulfan, Sum Endosulfan, alpha-
Endosulfan, beta-
Endosulfan-sulphate
Fenamiphos, Sum Fenamiphos
Fenamiphos-sulfoxide
Fenamiphos-sulfon
Fenthion, Sum Fenthion
Fenthion-sulfoxide
Fenthion-sulfon
Fenthion-oxon
Fenthion-oxon-sulfoxide
Fenthion-oxon-sulfon
Fipronil, Sum Fipronil
Fipronil-sulfon
Flonicamid, Sum Flonicamid
TFNG
TFNA
Fosetyl, Sum Fosetyl
Phosphonic acid
Glufosinate, Sum Glufosinate
MPP
N-Acetyl-Glufosinate (NAG)
Malathion, sum Malathion
Malaoxon
Methiocarb, sum Methiocarb
Methiocarb-sulfoxide
Methiocarb-sulfon
Milbemectin Milbemectin A3
Milbemectin A4
Oxydemeton-S-methyl, sum Oxydemeton-methyl
Demeton-S-methyl-sulfon
Parathion-methyl, sum Parathion-methyl
Paraoxon-methyl
Phorate, sum Phorate
Phorate-sulfon
Phorate-oxon
Phorate-oxon-sulfon
Phosmet, sum Phosmet
Phosmet-oxon
Prochloraz, total Prochloraz
2,4,6-Trichlorphenol
BTS 44595
BTS 44596
BTS 9608
BTS 40348
Pyrethrum, sum Pyrethrin I
Pyrethrin II
Jasmolin I
Jasmolin II
Cinerin I
Cinerin II
Pyridate, sum Pyridate
Pyridafol
Quintozen, sum Quintozen
Pentachloranilin
Sethoxydim, total Sethoxydim
Clethodim
Spirotetramat, sum Spirotetramat,
Spirotetramat-Enol,
Spirotetramat, Ketohydroxy
Spirotetramat, Monohydroxy
Spirotetramat-Enol-Glucoside
Tolylfluanid, sum Tolylfluanid
DMST
Triflumizol Triflumizol
FM-6-1

 

Translated by: Catherine Leiblein 

 

Artikel erstmals erschienen am 30.07.2020 08:25:57

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