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Residues and Contaminants in Fresh Fruit from Conventional Cultivation, 2020

Ein Bericht aus unserem Laboralltag

Kathi Hacker, Florian Hägele and Ellen Scherbaum

 

Summary

Our analysis of conventionally cultivated fresh fruit from 2020 shows a slight worsening over last year in terms of the residue situation. Particularly notable were exotic fruits, especially pomegranates, maracuja and papaya. Two of the analyzed samples contained pesticides in amounts that could pose a health risk. Our general tip: wash fruit with warm water before eating, as this removes some of the residues.

 

Photo: Fruits.

Overview

In 2020 a total of 618 samples of fresh fruit from conventional cultivation were analyzed by CVUA Stuttgart for residues of over 750 different pesticides, pesticide metabolites, and contaminants. In all, 602 of these samples (97 %) contained residues from a total of 193 different pesticide substances (compared to 190 substances in 2019; 192 in 2018; 190 in 2017; 188 in 2016; 179 in 2015; and 192 in 2014). A total number of 4,173 residues were found (according to the legal definition; see also Annexes 3 and 4).

 

There were exceedances of the legal maximum residue level (MRL) in 33 (5.3 %) of the fruit samples ((compared to 5.7 % in 2019 (3.1 % excluding formal chlorate violations); 7 % in 2018 (4.6 % excluding formal chlorate violations); 7 % in 2017; 6.9 % in 2016; 5.2 % in 2015; and 11 % in 2014)).

 

Compaired to previous years, inclusion of the polar pesticide chlorate in the calculation presents a lower rate of MRL exceedances, whereas its exclusion shows a somewhat higher rate. In 2020 higher, specific MRLs were established for chlorate residues to reflect the fact that chlorate ends up in food as a contaminant. In this reporting year just two (0.3 %) samples (nectarines and strawberries from Spain) were in violation due to exceedance of the new specific threshold value for chlorate (in 2019 there were 22 (2.7 %) samples).

 

A closer look at the countries of origin with the highest rate of exceedances (> 9 %) reveals that these are mostly third countries (see Table 1).

 

Table 1: Pesticide residues in fruit samples from conventional cultivation, by country of origin (CVUAS, 2020)
Country
Country Category
No. of Samples
Samples > MRL (%)
Turkey
Third Country
41
12 (29 %)
Vietnam
Third Country
6
1 (17 %)
Brazil
Third Country
25
4 (16 %)
Greece
EU-Country
7
1 (14 %)
China
Third Country
8
1 (13 %)
South Africa
Third Country
41
4 (10 %)
New Zealand
Third Country
21
2 (10 %)

 

Info Box

Maximum Residue Levels

Maximum residue levels (MRLs) are not toxicological endpoints or limit values. They are derived from residue investigations carried out under realistic conditions. The expected residues are then compared with toxicological limit values, in order to ensure that neither a lifelong nor a one-time intake of the substance poses a health risk.

Maximum residue levels regulate trade and must not be exceeded. Food containing residues above the MRL are not marketable; hence, they may not be sold. Not every exceedance of an MRL poses a health risk, however. It is important, therefore, to make differentiated observations.

 

BVL-Broschüre, Pflanzenschutzmittel – sorgfältig geprüft, verantwortungsvoll zugelassen, November 2009

 

Detailed Results

All of the samples were routinely analyzed using the QuEChERS multi-method and the QuPPe method (for very polar substances see also http://quppe.eu) for over 750 substances. Table 2 gives an overview of the analyzed fruit samples, itemized by country of origin.

 

Table 2: Pesticide residues in fruit samples from conventional cultivation, by country of origin (CVUAS, 2020)
Fresh Fruit
Domestic Samples
Other EU Countries
Third Countries
Unknown Origin
Total Samples
No. of Samples
180
160
265
13
618
With residues
177 (98 %)
155 (97 %)
258 (97 %)
12 (92 %)
602 (97 %)
Exceedances of MRL
2 (1 %)
7 (4 %)
23 (9 %)
1 (8 %)
33 (5 %)
Ave. quantity of pesticide (mg/kg)
4.8
2.9
2.8
1.7
3.4
Ave. quantity of pesticide, excluding fosetyl (sum), surface treatment agents, and bromide (mg/kg)*
0.40
0.56
0.40
0.20
0.44
Ave. no. substances per sample
7.2
6
5.7
6.5
6.2

*The comparatively high levels of fosetyl (sum), bromide and surface treatment agents (thiabendazole, imazalil, prochloraz and o-phenylphenol) strongly affect the average quantity of pesticides per sample. Therefore, the average amount is also provided without these substances.

 

The samples came from 37 different countries, although most were from Germany (180), Spain (96), Italy (43), South Africa (41), Turkey (41), Chile (27), Brazil (25), New Zealand (21), and Peru (21).

 

The year 2020 saw 602 (97 %) fruit samples with residues. According to the official definition of residues (see Annex 4), 193 different pesticide substances were detected.

 

An average of 6.2 different substances was detected per sample. The average amount of pesticide residues was 0.44 mg/kg, excluding fosetyl (sum), bromide, and the surface treatment agents that are mainly found on the peel of citrus fruits, to some extent on stone fruits, and in larger amount on exotic fruits.

 

Two of the fruit samples from conventional cultivation analyzed in 2020 contained amounts that exhausted the ARfD established by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) PRIMo Model by 100%:

  • pears from China, with chlorpyrifos residues
  • oranges from Uruguay, with imazalil residues

The pear sample with chlorpyrifos residues was judged to be unsuitable for human consumption, in accordance with Article 14, Para. 2 b VO (EC) No. 178/2002.

Whether an orange poses an acute health hazard is difficult to judge because, to meet the legally established definition of residues, these fruits must be analyzed together with their peels. A reliable risk assessment for the edible parts of the fruits is therefore difficult to make.

 

Info Box

Acute Reference Dose (ARfD)

For the evaluation of pesticides that have a high, acute toxicity and that can cause health damage after just a single or short-term intake, the Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) value is only appropriate to a limited extent. Since the ADI is derived from long-term studies, it is possibly inadequate as a measure of acute risk from residues in food. Therefore, in addition to the ADI value, a further exposure limit has been established, the so-called Acute Reference Dose (ARfD). The World Health Organization defines the ARfD as the amount of a substance one can consume over the period of one day or in one meal without resulting in any discernible health risk. Other than for the ADI, the ARfD value is not determined for every pesticide, but only for such substances that, when taken in sufficient quantities, could cause damage to one’s health even after just one exposure.

 

EU Pesticides database

EFSA calculation model Pesticide Residue Intake Model “PRIMo”– revision 3.1

 

Table 3 shows an overview of the analytical results for different fruit groups.

 

Table 3: Residues in fruit samples from conventional cultivation, by type of fruit (CVUAS, 2020)
Type of Fruit
No. of Samples
Samples with Residues
Samples with Multiple Residues
Samples > MRL
No. Findings > MRL
Substances exceeding the MRL*
Berries
153
149 (97 %)
145 (95 %)
5 (3 %)
5
Chlorate; Bromuconazole; Folpet; Nicotine; Iprodione
Exotic fruits
145
136 (94 %)
116 (80 %)
16 (11 %)
19
Fosetyl, sum (4x); Acetamiprid (3x); Deltamethrin (2x); Thiabendazole (2x); Denatonium benzoate (2x); Chlorfenapyr; Fenbuconazole; Fludioxonil; Captan; Etofenprox; Sulfoxaflor
Pome fruits
90
90 (100 %)
89 (99 %)
3 (3 %)
3
Chlorpyrifos; Diflubenzuron; Ametoctradin
Stone fruits
127
124 (98 %)
120 (94 %)
3 (2 %)
3
Chlorate; Carbendazim, sum; Tebufenozide
Citrus fruits
103
103 (100 %)
98 (95 %)
6 (6 %)
7
Imazalil; Diflubenzuron; Prochloraz, sum; Buprofezin; Glufosinate, sum; Nicotine; Fenbutatin oxide
TOTAL
618
602 (97 %)
568 (92 %)
33 (5 %)
 
 

*Individual samples contained more than one substance exceeding the MRL

 

Citrus and exotic fruits contained the highest average of MRL exceedances. Annex 1 lists the MRL exceedances in conventionally produced fresh fruits. Samples from Turkey were especially notable here; 9 out of 41 samples (22 %) exceeded the MRLs, 6 of which were pomegranates. Annexes 2 and 3 present the frequency distribution of the detected substances.

 

Presentation of Results for Specific Types of Fruit

Berries contained an average of 6.9 different substances and 0.55 mg pesticide per kg ((average quantity of pesticide excluding fosetyl (sum), surface treatment agents and bromide)).  In 2019, in comparison, berries contained an average of 6.1 different substances and an average of 0.56 pesticides per kg.

These sensitive fruits are vulnerable to mold, especially in damp weather, so an increased use of fungicide may occur, depending on the weather situation. 

 

A total of 45 strawberry samples were analyzed; 40 from Germany and 4 from Spain. Residues were detected in all of the samples, but none of the local samples were in violation. An exceedance of the MRL for chlorate was detected for one strawberry sample from Spain. As with last year, the most frequently detected substances were the fungicides fludioxonil, cyprodinil, fosetyl (sum), trifloxystrobin, and fluopyram. Up to 14 different substances were found in one locally grown strawberry sample.

 

Table grapes also contained myriad substances; one sample contained as many as 26 different substances. Fungicides were also the most often substance detected here, including fosetyl (sum), dimethomorph, boscalid and penconazole, followed by the insecticide spirotetramat. Despite the many detected residues, only one table grape sample from Turkey contained an excess of the substance bromuconazole.

 

Table 4: Residues in berries from conventional cultivation (CVUAS, 2020)
Type of Fruit
No. of Samples
Samples with Residues
Samples with Multiple Residues
Samples > MRL
Substances exceeding the MRL
Blackberry
8
8 (100 %)
8 (100 %)
-
 
Strawberry
45
45 (100 %)
45 (100 %)
1 (2 %)
Chlorate
Blueberry
22
19 (86 %)
17 (77 %)
1 (5 %)
Iprodione
Raspberry
13
12 (92 %)
10 (77 %)
1 (8 %)
Nicotine
Currant
21
21 (100 %)
21 (100 %)
1 (5 %)
Folpet
Cranberry
1
1*
1
-
 
Gooseberry
4
4*
4
-
 
Grape
39
39 (100 %)
39 (100 %)
1 (3 %)
Bromuconazole
TOTAL Berries
153
149 (97 %)
145 (95 %)
5 (3 %)
 

*No percentage is given for sample sizes under 5

 

Pome fruits contained an average of 8.1 different substances and 0.32 mg pesticide per kg (average quantity of pesticide excluding fosetyl (sum), surface treatment agents and bromide).

 

Table 5: Residues in pome fruits from conventional cultivation (CVUAS, 2020)
Type of Fruit
No. of Samples
Samples with Residues
Samples with Multiple Residues
Samples > MRL
Substances exceeding the MRL
Apple
56
56 (100 %)
56 (100 %)
-
 
Pear
29
29 (100 %)
28 (97 %)
2 (7 %)
Chlorpyrifos; Diflubenzuron
Medlar
3
3*
3
1
Ametoctradin
Quince
2
2*
2
-
 
TOTAL
Pome Fruits
90
90 (100 %)
89 (99 %)
3 (3 %)
 

*No percentage is given for sample sizes under 5

 

Conventionally produced apples and pears often contain pesticide residues. A total of 56 apple samples were examined, 40 of which came from Germany. In addition, 29 pear samples were examined, 10 coming from Germany. All of the apple and pear samples contained residues.

 

Stone fruits contained an average of 6.6 different substances and 0.49 mg pesticide per kg (average quantity of pesticide excluding fosetyl (sum), surface treatment agents and bromide). Most of the samples came from Germany (38 samples), Spain, Italy, Chile and Turkey.

 

Table 6: Residues in stone fruits from conventional cultivation (CVUAS, 2020)
Type of Fruit
No. of Samples
Samples with Residues
Samples with Multiple Residues
Samples > MRL
Substances exceeding the MRL
Apricot
10
10 (100 %)
9 (90 %)
-
 
Avocado
19
18 (95 %)
15 (79 %)
1 (5 %)
Carbendazim, sum
Mirabelle
2
2*
2
-
 
Nectarine
16
16 (100 %)
16 (100 %)
1 (6 %)
Chlorate
Peach
14
13 (93 %)
13 (93 %)
-
 
Plum
46
45 (98 %)
45 (98 %)
-
 
Cherry
20
20 (100 %)
20 (100 %)
1 (5 %)
Tebufenozide
TOTAL
Stone Fruits
127
124 (98 %)
120 (94 %)
3 (2 %)
 

*No percentage is given for sample sizes under 5.

 

Citrus fruits contained an average of 6.9 different substances and 0.67 mg pesticide per kg (average quantity of pesticide excluding fosetyl, sum; surface treatment agents; and bromide). When the surface treatment substances thiabendazol, imazalil, prochloraz and o-phenylphenol (often applied to the peel of citrus fruits in large amounts) are included in the calculation, the average comes to 4.1 mg pesticide per kg. Most of the oranges, clementines, satsumas, mandarines and lemons came from Spain. Limes came from Brazil, Mexico or Vietnam. MRL exceedances were found here for substances that are no longer authorized for use in the EU. As with last year, there was also a notable exceedance for fenbutatin-oxide, an organotin compound that has hardly been seen in citrus fruits in the last few years.

 

Table 7: Residues in citrus fruits from conventional cultivation (CVUAS, 2020)
Type of Fruit
No. of Samples
Samples with Residues
Samples with Multiple Residues
Samples > MRL
Substances exceeding the MRL**
Clementine
11
11 (100 %)
11 (100 %)
-
 
Grapefruit
10
10 (100 %)
9 (90 %)
-
 
Kumquat
1
1*
0
-
 
Lime
15
15 (100 %)
14 (93 %)
1 (7 %)
Diflubenzuron
Mandarine
12
12 (100 %)
12 (100 %)
2 (17 %)
Glufosinate, sum; Nicotine
Orange
26
26 (100 %)
25 (96 %)
3 (12 %)
Buprofezin; Fenbutatin oxide; Imazalil; Prochloraz, sum
Pomelo
2
2*
2
-
 
Satsuma mandarin
2
2*
2
-
 
Lemon
24
24 (100 %)
23 (96 %)
-
 
TOTAL
Citrus Fruits
103
103 (100 %)
98 (95 %)
6 (4 %)
 

*No percentage is given for sample sizes under 5

**Individual samples contained more than one substance exceeding the MRL

 

Exotic fruits contained an average of 3.6 different substances and 0.18 mg pesticide per kg (excluding fosetyl, sum; surface treatment substances; and bromide). Although exotic fruits contain the least amount of residues of all other types of fruits, they also have the highest rate of MRL exceedances.  Exotic fruits often come from so-called third countries, where other climatic conditions prevail and different pesticides are authorized for use. 

 

The situation regarding pomegranates (mostly from Turkey) has been inconsistent, unfortunately. After improving from a high of 36 % MRL violations in 2017 to lows of 13 % and 10 % in 2018 and 2019, the rate increased again in 2020, to 24 %.

 

Table 8: Residues in exotic fruits from conventional cultivation (CVUAS, 2020)
Type of Fruit
No. of Samples
Samples with Residues
Samples with Multiple Residues
Samples > MRL
Substances exceeding the MRL**
Pineapple
9
9 (100 %)
9 (100 %)
-
 
Banana
13
13 (100 %)
13 (100 %)
-
 
Figs
7
3 (43 %)
1 (14 %)
-
 
Pomegranate
25
25 (100 %)
25 (100 %)
6 (24 %)
Acetamiprid (3x); Captan, sum; Deltamethrin; Fosetyl, sum; Sulfoxaflor; Thiabendazole
Kaki
13
12 (92 %)
10 (77 %)
-
 
Prickly pear
2
1*
1
1
Deltamethrin
Physalis
1
1*
1
-
 
Kiwi
27
26 (96 %)
17 (63 %)
2 (7 %)
Denatonium benzoate (2x)
Lychee
3
2*
2
1
Fludioxonil
Mango
21
21 (100 %)
18 (86 %)
2 (10 %)
Etofenprox; Thiabendazole
Passion fruit
8
8 (100 %)
6 (75 %)
2 (25 %)
Chlorfenapyr; Fenbuconazole; Fosetyl, sum
Nashi pear
5
5 (100 %)
5 (100 %)
-
 
Papaya
8
8 (100 %)
7 (88 %)
2 (25 %)
Fosetyl, sum (2x)
Pitahaya
1
1*
1
-
 
Rhubarb
2
1*
0
-
 
TOTAL
Exotic Fruit
145
136 (94 %)
116 (80 %)
16 (12 %)
 

*No percentage is given for sample sizes under 5

**Individual samples contained more than one substance exceeding the MRL

 

Multiple Residues

Residues from multiple pesticides were also detected in a large number of fruit samples in 2020: 92 % of the 568 samples contained residues of two or more substances (90 % in 2019; 89 % in 2018; 91 % in 2017; 90 % in 2016; 89 % in 2015). Illustration 1 depicts the multiple residues in various types of fruit in 2020.

 

The highest numbers of substances found this year were in two samples of table grapes from Turkey with 25 and 26 different substances, followed by pears from Italy with 21 substances, and nectarines from Chile and mandarins from Peru, each with 20 different substances.

 

The residue findings are strongly dependent on the type of sample and their country of origin. Since the particular focus and risk-oriented questions are different each year, the results from one year cannot be seen as representative of the general situation.

 

Illustration 1a: Multiple residues in exotic fruits (CVUAS, 2020).

 

Illustration 1b: Multiple residues in berries (CVUAS, 2020).

 

Illustration 1c: Multiple residues in citrus fruits (CVUAS, 2020).

 

Illustration 1d: Multiple residues in pome fruits (CVUAS, 2020).

 

Illustration 1e: Multiple residues in stone fruits (CVUAS, 2020).

Illustration 1: Multiple residues in various types of fruit (CVUAS, 2020)

 

When making comparisons of the number of pesticide substances used, one must consider that the individual cultures are grown in different climate zones, and are thus exposed to different degrees of stress from pests. It is therefore often necessary to take individual, differenciated measures of plant protection.

 

Substances with special features

1. Phosphonic Acid

Phosphonic acid residues can result from the usage of the fungicidal plant protectors fosetyl and the salts of phosphonic acid (allowed in Germany in fruit and vegetable farming, such as grapes, blackberries and strawberries), as well as from the earlier usage of plant strengtheners (so-called leaf fertilizers).

 

A legal maximum residue level has been determined for the sum of fosetyl and phosphonic acid, as well as their salts. For fresh fruits from conventional cultivation, 46 % (284 samples) were detected with phosphonic acid, calculated as fosetyl, sum, with findings of up to 102 mg/kg (in blackberries). Fosetyl per se was only detected in four samples (2x table grapes, 1x strawberries, and 1x lemons; see Table 9). Violations occurred in four samples due to exceedances of the maximum for fosetyl, sum (see Annex 1).

 

The average rate of pesticide per sample is strongly influenced by the comparatively high average amount of fosetyl residues. Therefore, Table 2 presents the average rates of pesticides per sample both with and without fosetyl (sum).

 

Info Box

Phosphonic Acid and Fosetyl

Both fosetyl and phosphonic acid are fungicides that are permitted for use in the EU and fall under the applications area of Reg. (EC) No. 396/2005, regardless of their path of entry. In addition to the use of a fungicide, another feasible means of exposure could have been via leaf fertilizers that contained phosphonates (salts of phosphonic acid). The categorization of phosphonic acids as a fungicide since the harvest year of 2014 precludes this application, however. There are some indications that plants retain phosphonic acids, only eliminating them over a period of some years.

 

Table 9: Phosphonic acid and fosetyl residues in fruit from conventional cultivation (CVUAS, 2020)
Type of Fruit Parameter Name
No. of Positive Findings
Range (mg/kg)
Berries Fosetyl
3
0.011 – 0.10
Fosetyl, sum
81
0.079 – 102
Determined as phosphonic acid
 
0.059 – 76
Exotic Fruits Fosetyl, sum
45
0.082 – 36
Determined as phosphonic acid
 
0.061 – 27
Pome Fruits Fosetyl, sum
58
0.067 – 46
Determined as phosphonic acid
 
0.050 – 34
Stone Fruits Fosetyl, sum
30
0.16 – 63
Determined as phosphonic acid
 
0.12 – 47
Citrus Fruits Fosetyl
1
1.1
Fosetyl, sum
70
0.071 – 19
Determined as phosphonic acid
 
0.053 – 14

 

2. Chlorpyrifos and Chlorpyrifos-Methyl

The insecticide and acaricide chlorpyrifos has been used to combat against sucking and biting insects in agriculture, against storage pests and ectoparasites in animal husbandry and in the household. Chlorpyrifos belongs to the large group of phosphoric acid esters, whose insecticide effect is based on an inhibition of the cholinesterase. Its triumphal march began after World War II. In contrast to the organochlorine compounds, which are persistent in the environment, organophosphates degrade very quickly. Although their acute toxicity is high, their chronic toxicity is assessed to be rather low ((E605 (parathion) won some dubious prominence in suicide cases because the inhibition of the cholinesterase especially leads to the cramping of the intestinal tract and can result in death due to respiratory paralysis)).

 

In 2014 the European Food Safety Association (EFSA) undertook a new toxicological evaluation of chlorpyrifos and adjusted the acceptable daily intake (ADI, chronic toxicity) as well as the acute reference dosage (ARfD, acute toxicity) downward (see Info Box) [5]. Other adjustments followed: in 2016 and 2018 several maximum residue levels were also lowered. Authorization for its use in the EU ended on 16 Feb., 2020. The transitional period during which the existing substance had to be depleted ended on 18 April, 2020. The MRL for fruit was decreased to 0.01 mg/kg, effective as of 13 November, 2020.

 

An exceedance of the MRL for chlopyrifos was detected in a sample of pears from China in 2020. In all, 10 samples were found to contain levels of chlorpyrifos residues above 0.01 mg/kg, although all the samples had been taken before November 2020. As a comparison, 14 findings of chlorpyrifos residues in fruit above the level of 0.01 mg/kg were made in 2019 (see Table 10).

 

Table 10: Chlorpyrifos residues in fruit from conventional cultivation > 0.01 mg/kg (CVUAS, 2020 and 2019)
Year Type of Fruit Country of Origin
Chlorpyrifos (mg/kg)
2020
Banana Costa Rica
0.16
Banana Costa Rica
0.032
Banana Ecuador
0.02
Banana Panama
0.014
Pear China
0.075
Lime Brazil
0.023
Lime Brazil
0.015
Orange Morocco
0.041
Orange Egypt
0.059
Pomelo China
0.02
2019 Banana Costa Rica
0.021
Banana Ecuador
0.047
Clementine Italy
0.013
Pomegranate Turkey
0.026
Pomegranate Turkey
0.015
Grapefruit Turkey
0.28
Grapefruit Turkey
0.02
Orange Italy
0.026
Orange Italy
0.088
Orange Morocco
0.046
Orange South Africa
0.019
Orange Italy
0.094
Pomelo China
0.039
Quince Turkey
0.076

 

Concomitant to chlorpyrifos, authorization for the structurally related compound chlorpyrifos-methyl was also not renewed and the MRL was reduced to 0.01 mg/kg as of 13 Nov. 2020. There were fewer findings above 0.01 mg/kg in 2020 than in 2019 (Table 11). None of the samples were in violation, since they had all been collected before November.

 

Table 11: Chlorpyrifos-methyl residues in fruit from conventional cultivation > 0.01 mg/kg (CVUAS 2020 and 2019)
Year Type of Fruit Country of Origin
Chlorpyrifos-methyl (mg/kg)
2020 Orange Spain
0.035
Orange Turkey
0.19
Orange Spain
0.018
Peach Italy
0.024
2019 Apple Italy
0.04
Grapefruit Turkey
0.22
Mandarin Spain
0.072
Mandarin Spain
0.026
Mandarin Spain
0.017
Mandarin Turkey
0.018
Orange Spain
0.055
Orange Spain
0.016
Orange Spain
0.068
Orange Spain
0.011
Orange Spain
0.066
Orange Spain
0.032
Orange Spain
0.035
Orange Spain
0.093
Orange Spain
0.059
Orange Spain
0.089
Orange Spain
0.037
Peach Italy
0.012
Satsuma Spain
0.02
Red table grape Italy
0.018
Lemon Spain
0.066

 

How does frozen fruit score?

In addition to the 618 samples of fresh fruit, a total of 47 samples of frozen fruit products from conventional cultivation were also analyzed in 2020 for residues of over 750 different pesticides, pesticide metabolites and contaminants. The country of origin was unknown for 27 of the samples, and 14 came from Serbia. All of the samples exhibited multiple residues from pesticide substances. MRL exceedances were detected in 9 samples (19 %): 4 from unknown countries, 4 from Serbia and 1 from the Netherlands. The rate of violations is therewith significantly higher than that for fresh fruits. Frozen fruit is not just fresh goods that have been deep-frozen, however. Since these products stem from completely different countries of origin, they will also contain different pesticide substances. Table 12 presents an overview of the analytical results for the different frozen fruit groups.

 

Table 12: Residues in fruit samples from conventional cultivation sold as frozen, by type of fruit (CVUAS, 2020)
Type of Fruit
No. of Samples
Samples with Residues
Samples with Multiple Residues
Samples > MRL
Substances exceeding the MRL**
Blackberry, frozen
11
11 (100 %)
11 (100 %)
4 (36 %)
Dithiocarbamates (3x); Iprodione
Strawberry, frozen
5
5 (100 %)
5 (100 %)
1 (20 %)
Procymidone; Isoprocarb; Chlormequat chloride
Blueberry, frozen
5
5 (100 %)
5 (100 %)
1 (20 %)
Iprodione
Raspberry, frozen
21
21 (100 %)
21 (100 %)
3 (14 %)
Iprodione (2x); Acequinocyl; DEET
Currant, frozen
1
1*
1
-
 
Pineapple, frozen
1
1*
1
-
 
Cherry, frozen
3
3*
3
-
 
TOTAL
47
47 (100 %)
47 (100 %)
9 (19 %)
 

*No percentage is given for sample sizes under 5

**Individual samples contained more than one substance exceeding the MRL

 

Photo Credits

CVUA Stuttgart, Pesticide laboratory

 

References

[1] Chlorpyrifos Is "OUT": This Insecticide May No Longer Be Used In the EU

 

Annexes

Annex 1: Substances with MRL exceedances, by type of fruit and country of origin (CVUAS, 2020)
Substance Fruits with MRL Exceedances
Acetamiprid Pomegranate (Turkey 3x)
Ametoctradin Medlar (Italy)
Bromuconazole Grapes (Turkey)
Buprofezin Orange (Turkey)
Captan Pomegranate (Turkey)
Carbendazim, sum Avocado (South Africa)
Chlorate Strawberry (Spain); Nectarine (Spain)
Chlorfenapyr Passion fruit (Vietnam)
Chlorpyrifos Pear (China)
Deltamethrin Pomegranate (Turkey); Prickly pear (Italy)
Denatonium benzoate Kiwi (New Zealand 2x)
Diflubenzuron Pear (Turkey); Lime (Brazil)
Etofenprox Mango (Spain)
Fenbuconazole Passion fruit (South Africa)
Fenbutatin oxide Orange (Turkey)
Fludioxonil Lychee (Madagascar)
Folpet Currant (Germany)
Fosetyl, sum Pomegranate (Turkey); Passion fruit (South Africa); Papaya (Brazil 2x)
Glufosinate, sum Mandarine (South Africa)
Imazalil Orange (Uruguay)
Iprodione Blueberry (Chile)
Nicotine Mandarine (Spain); Raspberry (Germany)
Prochloraz, sum Orange (Greece)
Sulfoxaflor Pomegranate (Turkey)
Tebufenozide Cherry (Not Specified)
Thiabendazole Pomegranate (Turkey); Mango (Brazil)

 

 

Annex 2: Frequency of detection of the most important substances* for fresh fruit, by type of fruit, as percentage of all analyzed samples (CVUAS 2020), in comparison to 2019

Annex 2a: Frequency of detection of the most important substances for fresh fruits as percentage of all analyzed samples (CVUAS 2020).

 

Annex 2b: Frequency of detection of the most important substances for berries as percentage of all analyzed samples (CVUAS 2020).

 

Annex 2c: Frequency of detection of the most important substances for pome fruits as percentage of all analyzed samples (CVUAS 2020).

 

Annex 2d: Frequency of detection of the most important substances for stone fruits as percentage of all analyzed samples (CVUAS 2020).

 

Annex 2e: Frequency of detection of the most important substances for citrus fruits as percentage of all analyzed samples (CVUAS 2020).

 

Annex 2f: Frequency of detection of the most important substances for exotic fruits as percentage of all analyzed samples (CVUAS 2020).

*Corresponding to the valid residue definition; see Annex 4
A = Acaricide; B = Bactericide; F = Fungicide; H = Herbicide;
I = Insecticide; M = Metabolite; G = Growth Regulator

 

Annex 3: Frequency of residue findings of plant protection substances in fresh fruit from conventional production (CVUAS, 2020)
Pesticides and Metabolites
Number of Findings
mg/kg
< 0.01
< 0.05
< 0.2
< 1
< 10
< 20
> 20
Max.
Fosetyl, sum
284
0
0
31
94
118
21
20
102
Fludioxonil
243
79
44
53
48
19
0
0
7.3
Cyprodinil
139
61
35
25
17
1
0
0
1
Boscalid
138
65
40
16
15
2
0
0
1.9
Pyrimethanil
135
76
11
10
20
18
0
0
3.2
Trifloxystrobin
134
56
50
17
11
0
0
0
0.97
Fluopyram
112
50
25
25
12
0
0
0
0.59
Acetamiprid
108
49
42
14
3
0
0
0
0.35
Tebuconazole
106
48
39
15
3
1
0
0
1.1
Myclobutanil
97
76
12
4
5
0
0
0
0.48
Pyraclostrobin
90
43
32
12
3
0
0
0
0.39
Spirotetramat, sum
87
28
40
17
2
0
0
0
0.5
Difenoconazole
86
66
17
3
0
0
0
0
0.064
Imazalil
86
9
3
4
19
51
0
0
4.5
Captan
85
16
35
18
16
0
0
0
0.88
lambda-Cyhalothrin
85
62
19
4
0
0
0
0
0.11
Azoxystrobin
83
26
22
16
18
1
0
0
1.2
Thiacloprid
82
59
18
5
0
0
0
0
0.1
Chloranthraniliprole
77
55
22
0
0
0
0
0
0.038
Imazalil met. FK411
76
6
18
44
8
0
0
0
0.35
Acetamiprid met. IM-2-1
69
61
8
0
0
0
0
0
0.049
Pyriproxyfen
68
39
26
3
0
0
0
0
0.12
Thiabendazole
63
17
8
9
19
10
0
0
3.7
Dithianon
59
5
26
20
7
1
0
0
1.8
Pirimicarb
55
32
18
5
0
0
0
0
0.12
Deltamethrin
54
26
26
2
0
0
0
0
0.078
Carbendazim, sum
50
36
11
2
1
0
0
0
0.28
Chlorpyrifos
42
32
7
3
0
0
0
0
0.16
Spinosad
41
13
17
9
2
0
0
0
0.45
Imidacloprid
40
29
10
1
0
0
0
0
0.066
Thiabendazole-5-hydroxy
38
14
18
6
0
0
0
0
0.14
Methoxyfenozide
35
20
12
3
0
0
0
0
0.16
Fluxapyroxad
33
20
6
3
4
0
0
0
0.77
Chlorate
32
15
13
4
0
0
0
0
0.12
Fenhexamid
32
12
7
8
4
1
0
0
1.5
Penconazole
32
24
4
4
0
0
0
0
0.13
Bifenthrin
31
15
16
0
0
0
0
0
0.047
Imidacloprid, Olefin-
31
25
5
1
0
0
0
0
0.086
Indoxacarb
31
17
11
3
0
0
0
0
0.08
Pendimethalin
31
30
1
0
0
0
0
0
0.048
2,4-D
27
17
7
3
0
0
0
0
0.09
Dimethomorph
27
15
2
3
7
0
0
0
0.97
Fenpyroximate
27
16
10
1
0
0
0
0
0.066
Propiconazole
27
16
7
1
2
1
0
0
1.3
Cypermethrin
25
10
7
6
2
0
0
0
0.21
Hexythiazox
24
17
7
0
0
0
0
0
0.018
Metalaxyl (-M)
22
18
3
0
1
0
0
0
0.37
Etofenprox
21
8
6
4
3
0
0
0
0.87
Prochloraz, sum
20
3
1
4
6
6
0
0
3.2
Trifloxystrobin met. CGA 321112
20
0
19
1
0
0
0
0
0.051
Cyprodinil met. CGA304075
19
2
8
8
1
0
0
0
0.22
Dithiocarbamates
18
0
0
12
6
0
0
0
0.6
Hydroxy-Tebuconazole
18
9
9
0
0
0
0
0
0.049
Tebufenozide
18
16
2
0
0
0
0
0
0.044
Ethephon
17
0
6
7
4
0
0
0
0.8
Gibberellic acid
17
0
8
4
5
0
0
0
0.3
Proquinazid
17
2
9
6
0
0
0
0
0.12
Pirimicarb, desmethyl
16
14
2
0
0
0
0
0
0.02
Spirodiclofen
16
8
7
1
0
0
0
0
0.14
Dodine
15
7
6
1
1
0
0
0
0.23
Phosmet, sum
15
9
4
2
0
0
0
0
0.2
tau-Fluvalinate
14
8
3
3
0
0
0
0
0.1
Chlorpyrifos-methyl Met. 2,3,5-Trichloro-6-methoxypyridine
13
10
3
0
0
0
0
0
0.02
Cyantraniliprole
13
1
8
4
0
0
0
0
0.07
Ethephon metabolite HEPA
13
0
8
5
0
0
0
0
0.14
Fluopyram-Benzamide
13
13
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.009
Chlorpyrifos-methyl
12
7
4
1
0
0
0
0
0.19
Clothianidin
12
9
3
0
0
0
0
0
0.022
Fenbuconazole
12
6
4
1
1
0
0
0
0.32
Iprodione
12
11
0
0
1
0
0
0
0.25
Malathion, sum
12
10
2
0
0
0
0
0
0.044
Fenoxycarb
11
8
3
0
0
0
0
0
0.02
Metrafenone
11
5
2
2
2
0
0
0
0.4
2,4-D, sum
10
0
0
6
4
0
0
0
0.31
Emamectin B1a/B1b
10
8
2
0
0
0
0
0
0.022
Etoxazole
10
9
1
0
0
0
0
0
0.013
MCPA
10
10
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.006
Spinetoram
10
8
2
0
0
0
0
0
0.011
Thiophanate-methyl
10
8
1
1
0
0
0
0
0.085
Bupirimate
9
7
1
0
1
0
0
0
0.23
Difenoconazole alcohol
9
6
3
0
0
0
0
0
0.029
Fenpropimorph
9
7
2
0
0
0
0
0
0.014
Flonicamid, sum
9
6
2
1
0
0
0
0
0.053
Glyphosate
9
0
6
2
1
0
0
0
0.2
Trimethylsulfonium cation
9
7
1
1
0
0
0
0
0.053
Bifenazate, sum
8
6
1
1
0
0
0
0
0.14
o-Phenylphenol
8
0
3
0
3
2
0
0
3
Thiamethoxam
8
6
2
0
0
0
0
0
0.045
Ametoctradin
7
0
3
2
1
1
0
0
1.3
Cyflufenamid
7
6
1
0
0
0
0
0
0.022
Pyridaben
7
5
2
0
0
0
0
0
0.026
Buprofezin
6
5
0
1
0
0
0
0
0.14
Diazinon
6
4
2
0
0
0
0
0
0.011
Mandipropamid
6
4
1
0
1
0
0
0
0.32
Metalaxyl met. CGA94689
6
5
1
0
0
0
0
0
0.027
Propyzamide
6
6
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.003
Triclopyr
6
6
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.004
Cyfluthrin
5
3
2
0
0
0
0
0
0.018
Diflubenzuron
5
2
3
0
0
0
0
0
0.013
Ethirimol
5
2
3
0
0
0
0
0
0.025
Fenvalerat and Esfenvalerat, sum
5
1
4
0
0
0
0
0
0.05
Forchlorfenuron
5
5
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.003
Glufosinate, sum
5
0
3
2
0
0
0
0
0.12
Iprovalicarb
5
5
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.005
Isofetamid
5
0
1
4
0
0
0
0
0.18
Quinoxyfen
5
3
2
0
0
0
0
0
0.015
Sulfoxaflor
5
3
1
1
0
0
0
0
0.12
Chlorothalonil
4
2
0
2
0
0
0
0
0.19
Dimethoate-O-desmethyl
4
4
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.006
Famoxadone
4
1
2
1
0
0
0
0
0.08
Fenpropidin
4
3
0
1
0
0
0
0
0.075
Fluazifop
4
4
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.003
Folpet
4
2
2
0
0
0
0
0
0.036
Nicotine
4
0
4
0
0
0
0
0
0.032
Novaluron
4
2
2
0
0
0
0
0
0.014
Tebufenpyrad
4
2
2
0
0
0
0
0
0.021
Tetraconazole
4
3
0
1
0
0
0
0
0.068
Zoxamide
4
3
0
0
1
0
0
0
0.28
Abamectin, sum
3
1
2
0
0
0
0
0
0.017
Acrinathrin
3
3
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.008
Chlorothalonil-4-hydroxy
3
1
2
0
0
0
0
0
0.031
Denatonium benzoate
3
1
2
0
0
0
0
0
0.026
Fenazaquin
3
3
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.007
Fluazinam
3
1
2
0
0
0
0
0
0.034
Fluopicolide
3
2
0
1
0
0
0
0
0.15
Myclobutanil met. RH9090
3
0
2
1
0
0
0
0
0.058
Spiroxamine
3
2
0
1
0
0
0
0
0.068
Triflumuron
3
0
3
0
0
0
0
0
0.034
4-Chlorobenzoic acid
2
2
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.001
Bensulide
2
2
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.007
Boscalid met. M510F01
2
0
2
0
0
0
0
0
0.013
Carbaryl
2
2
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.002
Chlorpyrifos-methyl desmethyl
2
0
2
0
0
0
0
0
0.019
Clethodim, sum
2
0
2
0
0
0
0
0
0.012
Clethodim sulfoxide
2
0
2
0
0
0
0
0
0.014
Epoxiconazole
2
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0.013
Etofenprox met. Alpha-Co
2
0
2
0
0
0
0
0
0.021
Flupyradifurone
2
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0.013
Kresoxim-methyl
2
2
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.007
Permethrin
2
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0.012
Phenmedipham
2
2
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.005
Piperonyl butoxide
2
2
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.007
Triadimenol
2
2
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.003
1-NAD and 1-NAA, sum
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.004
2-TFMBA
1
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0.013
AMPA
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0.11
BAC (n=8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18)
1
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0.026
Bromide
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
29.5
Bromoxynil
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.002
Bromopropylate
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.001
Bromuconazole
1
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0.023
Cetrimonium chloride
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.007
Chlorfenapyr
1
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0.02
Chlormequatchloride, sum
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.006
Cyazofamid
1
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0.027
Cyflumetofen
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0.081
Dichlorprop
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.002
Diflufenican
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.002
Fenamidone
1
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0.032
Fenbutatin oxide
1
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0.25
Fenpropathrin
1
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0.033
Fenpyrazamine
1
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0.4
Fluroxypyr
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.002
Flutriafol
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.007
Fluvalinate enamine
1
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0.024
Fosthiazate
1
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0.017
Iprobenfos
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.002
Iprodione met. RP30228
1
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0.026
Lufenuron
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.002
Matrine
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.002
Mepanipyrim
1
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0.46
Mepanipyrim met. M31
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0.12
Metalaxyl met. CGA67869
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.003
Metalaxyl met. CGA107955
1
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0.01
Metributin-desamino-diketo
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.006
Metribuzin-desamino
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.001
Nereistoxin
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.008
Omethoate
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.003
Pentachlorophenol
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.002
Propargite
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.004
Pyrethrins
1
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0.037
Pyrimethanil met. SN 614 277
1
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0.03
Pyrimethanil-4-hydroxy
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0.071
Pyriofenone
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.002
Simazine
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.005
Spiromesifen
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.001
Sulfanilamide
1
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0.019
Terbuthylazine
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.007
Terbuthylazine-2-hydroxy
1
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0.017
Terbuthylazine-desethyl-2-hydroxy
1
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0.016
Terbutylazine-desethyl
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.002
Tolfenpyrad
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.003
Triflumizole, sum
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.001

 

Annex 4: Substances and metabolites included in the residue definition are only included as the sum in the calculation (one residue)
Parameter Included in the residue definition and analytically recorded
1-Naphthylacetic acid, sum 1-Naphthylacetamide
1- Naphthylacetic acid
Abamectin Avermectin B1a
Avermectin B1b
8,9-Z-Avermectin B1a
Aldicarb, sum Aldicarb
Aldicarb-sulfoxide
Aldicarb-sulfone
Amitraz, sum Amitraz
BTS 27271
Benzalkonium chloride, sum  (BAC) Benzyldimethyloctylammonium chloride (BAC-C8)
Benzyldimethyldecylammonium chloride (BAC-C10)
Benzyldodecyldimethylammonium chloride (BAC-C12)
Benzyldimethyltetradecylammonium chloride (BAC-C14
Benzylhexadecyldimethylammonium chloride (BAC-C16)
Benzyldimethylstearylammonium chloride (BAC-C18)
Captan, sum Captan,
THPI
Carbofuran, sum Carbofuran
3-Hydroxy-Carbofuran
Clethodim, sum Sethoxydim
Clethodim
Chloridazon, sum Chloridazon
Chloridazon-desphenyl
DDT, sum DDE, pp-
DDT, pp-
DDD, pp-
DDT, op-
Dialkyldimethylammonium chloride, sum (DDAC) Dioctyldimethylammonium chloride (DDAC-C8)
Didecyldimethylammonium chloride (DDAC-C10)
Didodecyldimethylammonium chloride (DDAC-C12)
Dieldrin, sum Dieldrin
Aldrin
Disulfoton, sum Disulfoton
Disulfoton-sulfoxide
Disulfoton-sulfone
Endosulfan, sum Endosulfan, alpha-
Endosulfan, beta-
Endosulfan-sulfate
Fenamiphos, sum Fenamiphos
Fenamiphos-sulfoxide
Fenamiphos-sulfone
Fenthion, sum Fenthion
Fenthion-sulfoxide
Fenthion-sulfone
Fenthion-oxon
Fenthion-oxon-sulfoxide
Fenthion-oxon-sulfone
Fipronil, sum Fipronil
Fipronil-sulfone (MB46136)
Flonicamid, sum Flonicamid
TFNG
TFNA
Folpet, sum Folpet,
Phthalimid
Fosetyl, sum Fosetyl
Phosphonic acid
Glufosinate, sum Glufosinate
MPP
N-Acetyl-Glufosinate (NAG)
Malathion, sum Malathion
Malaoxon
Metazachlor, sum 479M04,
479M08,
479M16
Methiocarb, sum Methiocarb
Methiocarb-sulfoxide
Methiocarb-sulfone
Milbemectin Milbemycin A3
Milbemycin A4
Oxydemeton-methyl, sum Oxydemeton-methyl
Demeton-S-methyl-sulfone
Parathion-methyl ,sum Parathion-methyl
Paraoxon-methyl
Phorate, sum Phorate
Phorate-sulfone
Phorate-oxon
Phorate-oxon-sulfone
Phosmet, sum Phosmet
Phosmet-oxon
Prochloraz, sum Prochloraz
2,4,6-Trichlorphenol *
BTS 44595
BTS 44596
BTS 9608
BTS 40348 *
* from September 2020 not part of sum
Pyrethrins, sum Pyrethrin I
Pyrethrin II
Jasmolin I
Jasmolin II
Cinerin I
Cinerin II
Pyridate, sum Pyridate
Pyridafol (CL 9673)
Quintozene, sum Quintozene
Pentachloro-aniline
Spinosad, sum Spinosyn A
Spinosyn D
Spirotetramat, sum Spirotetramat
Spirotetramat-Enol,
Spirotetramat, Keto-hydroxy
Spirotetramat, Monohydroxy
Spirotetramat-Enol-Glycosides
Tolylfluanid, sum Tolylfluanid
DMST
Triflumizole Triflumizole
FM-6-1

 

Translated by: Catherine Leiblein

 

Artikel erstmals erschienen am 27.04.2021 10:10:49

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